Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition
"al-Aḳraʿ b. Ḥābis"
akra'.pdf al-Aá¸³raÊ¿ b. á¸¤Äbis b. Ê¿Iá¸³Äl b. Muá¸¥ammad b. SufyÄn b. MudjÄshiÊ¿ b. DÄrim, TamÄ«mite warrior. Al-Aá¸³raÊ¿ is an epithet (âbaldâ); his proper name (FirÄs? ull?) is disputed. He is said to have been the last judge in the djÄhiliyya at ÉUkÄáº, having inherited this office (which was a privilege of TamÄ«m) from his ancestors; he performed this duty until the rise of Islam, giving his judgments in sadjÊ¿ (al-DjÄá¸¥iáº, BayÄn, i, 236). He is said also to have been the first to prohibit games of chance (á¸³imÄr), but was accused of partiality in the controversy between BadjÄ«la and Kalb. He took part, and was captured, in the battle of ZubÄla (or SalmÄn, according to al-BalÄdhurÄ« and YÄá¸³Å«á¹) and was freed by Bisá¹Äm b. á¸²ays. Another exploit of al-Aá¸³raÉ was the raid on NadjrÄn after the battle of al-KulÄb al-thÄnÄ« (see al-Naá¸³ÄÊ¾iá¸, 46, 448; Ibn á¸¤abÄ«b's statement (Muá¸¥abbar, 247) that he took part in al-KulÄb al-awwal is due to a confusion with his ancestor SufyÄn: see AghÄnÄ«, xi, 61). Ibn á¸¤abÄ«b also states that he was one of the djarrÄrÅ«n, who succeeded in uniting a whole branch of his tribe, the BanÅ« á¸¤anáºala, under his banner. According to Ibn á¸²utayba (al-MaÊ¿Ärif, 194) and Ibn al-KalbÄ« (quoted in the Iá¹£Äba) he was a Zoroastrian (madjÅ«sÄ«); this is of importance for the estimation of Persian influence on some sections of TamÄ«m. Nothing is known of his attitude towards Muá¸¥ammad up to the time when he joined the Prophet in al-Suá¸³yÄ during the expedition to Mecca in 8/630. He took part in the conquest of Mecca and was one of al-muÊ¾allafa á¸³ulÅ«buhum who were presented with gifts, which gave occasion to a famous verse of ÉAbbÄs b. MirdÄs. He took part also in the battle of á¸¤unayn and refused to return his booty, in spite of the Prophet's request. (For Muá¸¥ammad's somewhat negative opinion of him see also Ibn HishÄm, iv, 139.) He participated later in the deputation of TamÄ«m to the Prophet, the traditional account stressing his arrogant conduct; nevertheless, he was appointed to collect the á¹£adaá¸³Ät of part of the BanÅ« á¸¤anáºala (al-AnsÄb, x, 970r). Together with other chiefs of TamÄ«m, he interceded for the captives of the Banu 'l-ÉAnbar, and was a witness to a letter despatched by the Prophet to NadjrÄn. During the ridda, according to Sayf (al-á¹¬abarÄ«, i, 1920), al-Aá¸³raÉ and al-Zibriá¸³Än proposed to AbÅ« Bakr to guarantee the allegiance of TamÄ«m against the grant of the kharÄdj of Baá¸¥rayn, and it was only ÉUmar who prevented AbÅ« Bakr from accepting the proposal. In view of the situation of TamÄ«m at this period, this tradition does not seem trustworthy, but it may reflect ÉUmar's attitude to al-Aá¸³raÉ (cf. BayÄn, i, 253, and Ê¿UyÅ«n al-AkhbÄr (Cairo), i, 85). Sayf relates also that he took part in the battle of the ridda alongside KhÄlid b. al-WalÄ«d, and was in the vanguard at the battles of DÅ«mat alDjandal and al-AnbÄr. His name is last mentioned in 32/652-3, when he was sent by alAá¸¥naf b. á¸²ays to subdue DjÅ«zdjÄn; he must have been a very old man at that time. AlBalÄdhurÄ« mentions that his descendants lived in KhurÄsÄn. (M.J. Kister) Bibliography Ibn HishÄm, SÄ«ra, index BukhÄrÄ«, ch. on Wafd BanÄ« TamÄ«m, iii, 65 Naá¸³ÄÊ¾iá¸ (Bevan), index Ibn al-KalbÄ«, Djamharat al-AnsÄb, B. M. 1202, 65 BalÄdhurÄ«, FutÅ«á¸¥, Cairo 1319, 414 idem, AnsÄb al-AshrÄf, MS, x, 969v-970r á¸¤assÄn b. ThÄbit, DiwÄn, Cairo 1929, 243-52, 353 v Ibn SaÉd, index Mubarrad, KÄmil, Cairo 1355, i, 133 DjÄá¸¥iáº, BayÄn, i, 236, 253 Ibn á¸¤abÄ«b, Muá¸¥abbar, 134, 182, 247, 473 Ibn á¸²utayba, MaÊ¿Ärif, Cairo 1935, 194, 305 á¹¬abarÄ«, index AghÄnÄ«, Tables Ibn ÉAbd Rabbihi, Ê¿Iá¸³d, Cairo 1940 f., index Ibn RashÄ«á¸³, Ê¿Umda, ii, 160 Ibn á¸¤azm, Djamhara, 219 Ibn ÉAsÄkir, iii, 86-91 YÄá¸³Å«á¹, s. vv. SalmÄn, DjÅ«zdjÄn Ibn al-AthÄ«r, index LA, s.v. á¸³araÊ¿a Ibn á¸¤adjar, Iá¹£Äba, s.v. al-Aá¸³raÉ E. BrÃ¤unlich, Bisá¹Äm b. Qais, Leipzig 1923, 46 Maá¸³rÄ«zÄ«, ImtÄÊ¿ al-AsmÄÊ¿, Cairo 1941, index. [Print Version: Volume I, page 343, column 1] Citation: Kister, M.J. "al-Aá¸³raÉ b. á¸¤Äbis b. ÉIá¸³Äl b. Muá¸¥ammad b. SufyÄn b. MudjÄshiÉ b. DÄrim." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman; , Th. Bianquis; , C.E. Bosworth; , E. van Donzel; and W.P. Heinrichs.