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khuzaa.pdf KHUZA'A Khuza'a, an ancient Arab tribe of obscure origin. Muslim genealogists, assuming a Mudari origin of the Khuza'a, based their argument on an utterance attributed to the Prophet, according to which the ancestor of the tribe, 'Amr b. Luhayy [q.v.] was a descendant of Kama'a (='Umayr) b. Khindif, thus tracing their pedigree to Mudar.1 Some sections of the Khuza'a asserted that they were descendants of al-Salt b. al-Nadr b. Kinana b. Khuzayma b. Mudrika b. Ilyas b. Mudar. The claims to Mudari descent made by some Khuza'a groups were firmly rejected by genealogists, who asserted that both Kama'a and alSalt died childless.2 MUs'ab, recording the Mudari genealogy of the Khuza'a, confirmed by an utterance of the Prophet, cautiously remarks that the pedigree given by the Prophet is true, provided that it was actually said by him.3 Harmonizing traditions, trying in the usual way to bridge the contradictory reports about the origin of the Khuza'a, claim that after the death of Kama 'a, the mother of Luhayy married the Yamani, Haritha, and the child traced his pedigree to the Yamani father who adopted him.4 Another tradition states that Kama'a married and had children, but clashed with his relatives, so leaving for al-Yaman and allying himself with the Azd.5 The Yam ani tradition, on the other hand, records a lengthy list of ancestors of Khuza'a, beginning with Luhayy (=Rabi'a) b. Haritha b. 'Amr b. 'Amir b. Haritha b. Imru 'l-Kays b. Tha'laba b. al-Azd. The pedigree is, of course, traced back to Kahtan.6 The traditions about the beginnings of the Khuza'a's rule in Mecca, ascribing the Khuza'a to the Azd, record a long story about the migration of the tribal groups of the Azd from South to North Arabia. While some tribal divisions continued their migration to Syria (Ghassan), 'Uman 1 Ibn Hisham,al-S,ra al-nabawiyya, ed. al-Sakka, al-AbyarI and ShalabI, Cairo 1355/1936, i, 78; al-BaladhurI, Ansab al-amra/, ed. Mul,lammad J.:Iamldullah, Cairo 1959, i, 34; al-FasI, SlJ,ija' al-ghariim bi-a/ffibar al-balad al-~aram, Cairo 1956, ii, 44-5; Mu~'ab b. 'Abd Allah al-ZubayrI, Nasab ~uraym, ed. E. Levi-Proven~al, Cairo 1953, 7-8, ii; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Inbah 'ala ~aba'il al-ruwat, al-Nadjaf 1386/1966, 97-8; Ibn J.:Iazm, Djamharat ansiib al-'Arab, ed. E. Levi-Proven<;al, Cairo 1948, 222-4; al- Sam'anI,al-Ansiib, ed. 'Abd al-Ral,lman al-Mu'allamI, Hyderabad 1385/1966, v, 116. 2 Ibn al-KalbI, Djamharat al-nasab, Ms. B.M., Add. 23297, fol. 4b, II. 9-10; alWazlr al-MagllribI,-Adab al-/ffiawii~~, Ms. Bursa, Hiiseyin <;elebi, 19, fols. 84b-86a; al-BalacLburI, Ansab, i, 34 ult., 38-9; Mu~'ab, op.cit., 11-12. 3 Mu~'ab, 8; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Inbah, 98. 4 AI-FasI, Shi/ii', ii, 46. 5 AI-Bala,JhurI, Ansab, i, 35, ll. 1-2. 6 AI-FasI, Shi/a', ii, 45, II. 5-10; Ibn 'Abd ai-Barr, al-Inbiih, 97; Ibn Durayd, al-Imti~a~, ed. 'Abd al-Salam Hartin, Cairo 1378/1958, 468; al-J.:IazimI, 'Udjiilat almubtadi, ed. 'Abd Allah Kantin, Cairo 1384/1965, 54. 2 (Azd 'Uman) and north Yemen (Azd Shanil'a), the Khuza'a separated (inkhaza' at) and managed to gain control of Mecca. One of the traditions reports that the leader of the Azd asked the Djurhum [q.v.], the tribe which then ruled Mecca, to permit them to stay in the region of the town until their foragers find suitable pasturage, threatening war if they were denied this. When the Djurhum refused their permission, the Khuza'a fought them, defeating them and gaining possession of the Sanctuary of Mecca. Another tradition, on the authority of Abu: 'Amr al-ShaybanI, reports that the custodianship of the Ka'ba was legally obtained by the Khuza'a because their leader, Rahi'a b. I:Iaritha, married Fuhayra, the daughter of al-Harit]; b. Mudad al-Djurhuml; his son, 'Amr b. Rabi'a (i.e., 'Amr b. Luhayy), thus had a legal basis for his claims to the custodianship. In the protracted battles which ensued between the Khuza'a and Djurhum, the former defeated the latter who had to leave the town. A third tradition ascribes the decline of the Djurhum in Mecca to their deterioration and moral decay. Afflicted by plagues, God's chastisement for their wickedness, they were extirpated, and only few survivors from amongst them left Mecca. The custodianship of the harem. was then taken over by the Khuza'a, Another tradition gives a quite different account of the events, i.e., that the Khuza'a took over the control of Mecca from the Iyad [q.v.]. A peculiar version of this tradition transmitted by al-Zubayr b. Bakkar reports a battle which followed some clashes between the ruling Iyad and the Mudar in which the Iyad were defeated. The Iyad were given permission to leave Mecca on condition that Mudari women married to IyadlS return to the Mudar if they so wished. Among the women thus returned was a Khuza'I woman named Kudama. The Khuza'a, the report states, then traced their pedigree to Mudar. Since the Iyad did not take with them into exile the pillar with the Black Stone, they decided to bury it. The Khuza't woman told her people of the whereabouts of the buried Stone and advised them to ask the Mudar for the custodianship of the Ka'ba as reward for finding the pillar with the Black Stone. The Khuza'a did so, and succeeded in gaining control of the Ka'ba, keeping it until the arrival of Kusayy [q.v.].7 Another tradition reports that the Djurhum were driven out of Mecca by the joint action of Bakr b. 'Abd Manat of Kinana and the Banu Ghubshan of the Khuza'a.8 These stories, allotting exceptionally long lives to the rulers of the Djurhum and Khuza'a are in the nature of folk-tradition in which were 7 AI-FilsI, Shi/a', ii, 26 f.; al-Ya'kubt, Ta'rf/m, al-Nadjaf 1384/1964, i, 208; Muhammad b. Habib, al-M1Lnamma~, ed. KhurWId Al,lmad Fari~, Hyderabad 1384/1964, 344 f.; al-Tsami, Simt al-n1L~um al-'awalf, Cairo 1380, i, 183. 8 AI-FilsI, ~ifii.', i, 370; 'Bakr b. 'Abd Manat of the Khuza'a', as recorded in art. D.JURHUM above is an error. Khuza'a 3 embedded elements of mu'ammarun-tales, edifying stories about righteous and pious men,? accounts of battles and clashes in the popular style of the ayyam al-' arab, and recollections oflegends about the migrations of tribes caused by a dam breaking in South Arabia. The tradition focuses on 'Amr b. Luhayy, almost unanimously blaming him for the wicked innovations in the faith of Abraham and for the introduction of idol-worship, especially that of HubaI, in Mecca. There is, however, a contradictory tradition which asserts that it was Khuzayma b. Mudrika, one of the ancestors of Kuraysh, who introduced the worship of Hubal and that Hubal was consequently called "Hubal Khuzayma" .10 As in the case of the Iyad, some traditions mention among the Khuza'a a homo religiosus, Abu Kabsha, who in his search for the true religion worshipped Sirius. The unbelievers used to refer to the Prophet as Ibn AbI Kabsha in the early period of his prophethood, pointing out his deviation from the current beliefs of his people.l ' These conflicting stories seem to indicate that the formation of the tribe of K.huza'a occurred over a long period of time, ramifying into various tribal units. The main territory of the tribe was between Mecca and Medina. When Kusayy arrived in Mecca aiming to gain control of the town, he had to subdue the ruling Bakr b. 'Abd Manat of Kinana, the Khuza'a and their supporters, the Sfifa. The different stories about the enigmatic Kusayy resemble in their outline those about the former rulers of Mecca. Kusayy's marriage to Hubba bint Hulayl b. Hubshiyya gave legitimacy to his custodianship of the Ka'ba. Another legitimisation to it was the tale of how Kusayy bought the office for a goat's skin of wine from the drunken Abu Ghubiillan; this is recounted in the compilations of proverbs and stories of fools.P The court of Abu Ghubshan (dar Abr GlJ,ubMi,an)was still known in Mecca in the second half of the 3rd century 9 See e.g. the story of WakI' b. Salama of Iyad and his servant Hazwara, in al-Fast, ShiN.', ii, 26, and Muhammad b. Habib, al-Munamma~, 346-7. 10 AI-Baladhuri,Amsab, i, 37, no. 77; al-Fasl, Shifa', ii, 51 inf. 11 Muhammad b. Habib, al-MuIJ-abbar, ed. 1. Lichtenstaedter, Hyderabad 1361/1942, 129; 'Ali: b. Burhan al-Dln al-Halabi, Insiin. al-'uyiin fi. sirat al-amin al-ma'miin (=al-S,ra al-IJ-alabiyya), Cairo 1382/1962, i, 333; al-Baladhurr, Ansab, i, 91, 327; al-Suyiitl, al-Durr al-manll!,iir, Cairo 1314, vi, 131; al-Kurtubi, Tafslr, 1387/1967, xvii, 119; al-Makrizr, Imiii: al-asma', ed. Mahrniid Shakir, Cairo 1941, i, 77, 158; al-Kazarfini, Sirat ai-nab" Ms. B.M., Add. 1499, fol. 231a-b; 'Abd al-Salarn Hartin (ed.), Nawadir al-ma/ffi!ii!at, Cairo 1370/1951, i, 100 (al-Fayrtizabadht, TulJ-fat al-abih. nusiba ila ghayri abfh). 12 Al-'Askari, Djamhar;;t al-amll!,al, ed. Muhammad Abu "l-Fadl Ibrahim and 'Abd al-Madjid ~atamisb, Cairo 1384/1964, i, 387, no. 585; Hamza al-Isfahani, al-Durra al-/a!sliira fi 'I-amll!,a/ al-sa'ira, ed. 'Abd al-Madjrd ~atamiill, Cairo 1972, i, 139, no. 126; al-Tha'alibi, Thimiir al-~ulti.b, ed. Abu'l-Fa<).l Ibrahim, Cairo 1384/1965, 135, no. 190; al-Maydani, Ma'!jma' al-amll!,al, ed. Muhyi 'l-Dfn 'Abd al-Hamid, Cairo 1379/1959, i, 216, no. 1167; Ibn al-Djawzi, A/ffibar al-IJ-am~a, Beirut, n.d., 42. 4 of the Hidjra.l ' According to another account, like the preceding rulers, Kusayy fought the two tribes of Bakr b. 'Abd Manat and Khuza'a and destroyed their power. As in the story of Iyad, his wife, Hubba, revealed the place where the pillar with the Black Stone was buried, and so the true worship of the Ka'ba could be resumed.l" Relations between Kusayy on one side and the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat and Khuza'a on the other were settled on the basis of the judgement of the arbiter, Ya'rnar b. 'Awf of the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat, called alShuddakh. The verdict granted Kusayy the custodianship of the Ka'ba and provided for the Khuza'a to be left in the area of the f},aram.15 In the new regime set up by Kusayy, in which the scattered tribal units of the Kuraysh were gathered and settled in Mecca, the groups of the Khuza'a played an important role in strengthening the power-base of Mecca, aiding the Kuraysh to extend their influence among the tribes. The Khuza'a were included in the organization of the Hums [q. v.]. Two tribal groups of the Khuza'a, the Mustalik and Haya, were included in the organization of the Al,tabI§h, the allies of the Kuraysh.l" Together with Mudari tribes, the Khuza'a worshipped al-'Uzza and Manat; and with the Daws they worshipped Dhu 'f-Kaffayn.!" The involvement of the Khuza'a and the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat in the affairs of Mecca and their influence can be gauged from the story about the agreement between the Kuraysh and the Thal,Uf concerning the mutual rights of these two tribes to enter Mecca and Wadjdj: the Tha~If complied with the demands of the Kuraysh, fearing their strength and that that of the Khuzaa and Bakr b. 'Abd Manat.l" The considerable number of Khuza'Is listed as married by the Kurashis recorded in the sources bears witness to the close relationship between the Kurays]; and the Khuza'a. Indeed, when the Khuza'a decided to ally themselves with 'Abd al-Muttalib, they stressed that he was 'borne' by Khuza'I women (fa-~ad waladnaka). Similarly, the Khuza'I, 'Amr b. Salim, addressed the Prophet with the words kad kun- Al-Fakiht, Ta'rikh Makka, Ms. Leiden, Or. 63, [01. 456b, l. 15. AI-FasT, Sllifii', ii, 73; al-Nuwayri , Nihiiyat ai-arab, Cairo 1374/1955, xvi, 31. 15Ibn al-Kalbi, Djamhara, fols. 51a inf.-51b sup. 16See e.g. Ibn ~utayba, al-Ma'iini "l-kabir, Hyderabad 1368/1949, 998, l. 4; Muhammad b. Hablb, al-Muhabbar, 178; al-Hazimi, al-I'tibiir [i bayiin al-niisik_h wa 'l-mansu/;;/> min al-iiiliiir, Hyderabad 1359, 150; Ibn al-Kalbi, Djamhara, fols. 48b-49a sup.; al-Fasi, Shifii', ii, 41; Yaknt, S.v. Makka; al-Bakri, Mu'djam mii 'sta'djam, ed. al-Sakka, Cairo 1364/1945, 245; Ibn al-Fakth, al-Buldiin, cd. de Goeje, Leiden 1885, 18. 17Yakut, s.v. Manat: Ibn 'Arabi, Muhii4arat al-abriir, Beirut 1388/1968, i, 415; Ps, Asma'T, al-Shiimil, the section Tawiir;;/;;/> al-anbiyii', Ms. B.M., Or. 1493, fo!' 27a; Muhammad b. Habtb, al-Muhabbar, 318. 18'Muhammad' b. J:IabTb, al~Munamma~, 280. 13 14 Ktuizc:« 5 tum waladan uia-kunnii walidii when he came to ask for his help against the Banu Bakr and Kuraysh.l" According to one tradition, when the Prophet was on his hidjra to Medina he met Burayda b. al-Husayb al-AslamI [q.v.] with a large group of his people. Burayda and his people then embraced Islam and prayed behind the Prophet. These Aslam, a branch of the Khuza'a, very early allied themselves to the Prophet, and As1am warriors participated in his campaigns. The Prophet's agreements with the Aslam/" are evidence of the friendly relations which existed between the Prophet and the Aslam. After the murder of those who went on the Bi'r Ma'una [q.v.] expedition, the Prophet invoked God's blessing for the Aslam.r! When the Prophet mobilised the forces for the conquest of Mecca he summoned the Aslam, who dwelt in the neighbourhood of Medina, to present themselves in the town. In fact, 400 Aslam warriors, among them 30 riders, took part in the conquest of Mecca. Aslam's two standard bearers ofthe conquest were Burayda b. al-Husayb and Nadjiya b. a1-A'cljam.22 The Aslam, along with the Ghifar, Muzayna and Djuhayna, were pointed out by the Prophet as having surpassed in virtue the mighty tribes of the TamIm, Asad, 'A.mir b. Sa'sa'a and Gl1atafan.23 Haditl: commentators are unanimous in saying that this high position was granted to them because they had rushed to embrace Islam. The stand taken by the Mustalik, another branch of the Khuza'a allied with the Banu Mudlidj of Kinana and included in the Ahabish organization linked with the I~uraysh, was, however, quite different towards the Muslim commonwealth of Medina. Their leader, al-Harith b. AbI Dirar, gathered his tribe's forces for an assault on Medina but was defeated by the Prophet's men who attacked them at MuraysI' in 5/627 and defeated them, taking captives and booty. The Prophet married the captured daughter of the leader, Djuwayriya.e? Another branch of the Khuza'a, the Ka'b b. 'Arm, played a decisive role in the struggle between Mecca and the Prophet. The discord and clashes between the Ka'b and their neighbours, the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat, led the Ka'b b. 'Amr to opt for an alliance with the Prophet in the pact of al-Hudaybiya, whereas the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat allied themselves with 19 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, 'Uyun ol-attvar ji: [utiiin. al-maghazi wa 'I-shamii'il wa 'I-siyar, Cairo 1356, ii, 164-5, 182. 20 See Hamidullah, MadJmu'at al-waillii'ik al-siyiisiyya Ii 'I-'ahd al-nabawi wa '1Iffiilafa al-riish.uia, Cairo 1376/1956, 191-4, nos. 165-70. 21 Wa-Aslam salamahii 'llahu; al-Wakidi, al-Maghazi, ed. Marsden Jones, Oxford 1966, 350. 22 AI-FasI, SlJifa', ii, 123; Ibn Hacljar, al-Isiiba, ed. 'All Muhammad al-Bidjawi, Cairo 1392/1972, vi, 398, no. 8647; al- WakidI, 799-800. 23 Al-Kast.allanr, Irshiid al-siiri, Cairo 1327, vi, 11-13; Ibn Hadjar, Fath al-bari, Cairo 1301, vi, 395-7. 24 AI-Wa~idI, 403-13. 6 Mecca. A group of the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat clandestinely helped by some Kuraysh leaders attacked the Ka'b b. 'Amr at al- Watir, killing several of them. The orator of the Ka'b, 'Amr b. Salim, appeared at the court of the Prophet in Medina and addressed him, reminding him of the alliance of the Ka'b with 'Abd al-Muttalib. He drew attention to the killings of the Ka'b at al-Watrr and urged him to avenge his allies. The Prophet responded with a promise of aid for victory (nu$ra). The request of a man from the 'AdI b. 'Arnr, the brethren of the Ka'b b. 'Amr, to be included in the promise was answered by the Prophet's remark that the Ka'b and 'AdI are one corporate body.25 It is evident that the tendency of this tradition is to establish the position of the 'AdI b. 'Amr in the Prophet's invocation and stress their role in the expedition against Mecca. Whether the Ka'b b. 'Amr were already Muslims when they asked for help is disputed by scholars.P" According to some commentators ofthe Kur'an, vv .13-15 of Siirai al- Tawba ordering battle against those who had broken their solemn pledges (ala tu~atilUna ~awman nakath:u aymanahum ... ) were revealed in connection with the wicked attack by the Banu Bakr b. 'Abd Manat against the Ka'b b. 'Amr.27 When the Prophet set out against Mecca, he was joined by those Ka'b tribesmen who had remained in Medina. The main Ka'b troop joined the Prophet's forces in Kudayd, The Ka'b troop numbere 500 warriors and had three standards carried by Busr b. Sufyan, Abu ShurayJ:t28 and 'Amr b. Salim. It is noteworthy that the Prophet permitted the Ka'b to continue fighting the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat in Mecca for some additional hours after he had ordered all other troops to stop.29 It may be remarked that a group of the Bakr b. 'Abd Manat hastened to join the Prophet's forces. When Abu Sufyan looked at the marching troops of the Prophet and noticed Bakr's forces, he remarked sadly: "By God, they are an inauspicious people; because of them Muhammad raided us" .30 25 Wa-hal 'Adiyyun iWi Ka'b wa-Ka'bun illii 'Ad,: Niir al-Drn al-Haythami, Madjma' al-zawii'id, Beirut 1967, vi, 164; Ibn al-Bakkal, al-Fawii'id al-munta~iit, Ms.-?ahiriyya, madjrnfla, 60, fol. 85b; al-Tabarani, al-Mu'ti.jam al-~afl'>'r, ed. 'Abd al-Rahrnan Muhammad 'Uthman, Cairo 1388/1968, ii, 73-5. 26 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, ii, 182, penult. says that they were unbelievers; al-Kala'I, alIktijii', ed. Mustafa 'Abd al-Wahid, Cairo 1389/1970, ii, 288, says that they were Muslims; and see Ibn Hisham, op.cit., iv, 36, n. 4. 27 Al-Tabarr, Tajs,r, ed. Shakir, Cairo 1958, xiv, 158-62 (nos. 16535-16547); alSuyutt, al-Durr al-manlliur, iii, 214-15; idem, Lubiib al-nu~ul, Cairo 1373/1954, 114; al-Kurtubi, Tofstr, viii, 86-7; al-Farra', Ma'iin, I-~ur'iin, ed. Ahmad Ytlsuf al-Nadjatt and Muhammad 'All al-Nadjdjar, Cairo 1374/1955, i, 425. 28 Ibn' 'Asakir, Ta'r,klr-, Damascus 1349, vi, 400; Ibn Sa'd, Taba~iit, Beirut 1377/1957, iv, 294-5; al-Wakidl, 801 ('Ibn Shurayl,l' in ibid., I. 2 is an error). 29 See ibid., 839, al-Makrfzr, op. cit., i, 388; al-Fasl, Shifii', ii, 144, al-Hazimf, alI'tibiir, 153; 'All b. Burhan al-Dln, al-Siro: al-~alabiyya, iii, 97 inf. 30 Al-Wakidt, 820; Ibn 'Asakir, vi, 401. Khuzii'a 7 The meritorious attitude of the Khuza'a towards the Prophet is fairly reflected in Muslim tradition. The Prophet is reported to have stated that the Khuza'a were intimately linked to him.31 The Kur'an is said to have been revealed to the Prophet in the dialect (lugha) ofthe two Ka'bs, Ka'b b. Lu'ayy and Ka'b b. 'Amr b. Luhayy, because they shared the same abode.F The Prophet granted a special privilege to the Khuza'a by awarding them the rank of muhadjirun while permitting them to remain in their territory.33 It was a Khuza'I, Tamim b. Usayd, whom the Prophet entrusted with the restoration of the border-marking stones (an.~iib) of the lJ,aram of Mecca.i'" The leader of the Ka'b, Busr b. Sufyan, according to one tradition, was appointed by the Prophet as the tax-collector of the Ka'b, In 9/630 they were prevented from handing over their taxes by groups of the Banu 'l-'Anbar and Banu 'l-Hudjaym'" of the Tamim. The Prophet then sent out a troop commanded by 'Uyayna b. I:Ii1?nagainst these Tamlmls.36 In the account, it is emphasized that the Ka'b were believers, paying the sadaka willingly. A special tax-collector was also sent to the other branch of the Khuza'a, the Banu MU1?tali~.37 'Umar b. al-Khattab used to carry the dfwiin of the Khuza'a to Kudayd and there distributed payments to the people of the tribe.38 Khuza'I warriors participated in the Islamic conquests and groups of the Khuza'a settled in the various provinces of the Arab empire. Some members of the Khuza'a took part in the revolt against 'Uthman in Medina.i'? Groups of the Khuza'a joined 'All and fought on his side in the Battle of Siffln, and some Khuza'ts in Khurasan were among the 'Abbasid agents who paved the way for the new dynasty. 31 Khuza'atu minni wa-ana minhum; Khuzii.'atu l-uiiilidu. wa-ana 'l-waladu: see e.g. al-Daylami, Firdaws al-aicl!bar, Ms. Chester Beatty, 3037, fol. 78b; 'All b. Burhan alDIn, al-Stro al-~alabiyya, iii, 83; al-Muttaki al-Hindi, Kanz al-'ummal, Hyderabad 1385/1965, xiii, 55, no. 316. 32AI-FasI, Shi/a', ii, 55; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Inbii.h, 99. 33Ibid., 100. 34Mughaltay, al-Zahr al-bii.sim fi sirat Abi 'l-~asim, Ms. Leiden, Or. 370, fol. 319ainf.-319b; al-Fasi, al-' Ikd al-t/!am.n, ed. Fu'ad Sayyid, Cairo 1383/1964, iii, 387, no. 861. 35 'Ibn al-'Vtayr' and 'Banil Djuhaym' in al-Wakidr, 974 are errors. 36AI-Wa~idI, 974f. 37Ibn Sa'd, iii, 440 inf. 38AI-Baladhuri, Futii~ al-buldan, ed. 'Abd Allah and 'Umar al-Tabba', Beirut 1377/1957, 634; Ibn Sa'd, iii, 298. 39Ibn 'Abd Rabbihi, al-'I~d al-farid, ed. Ahmad AmIn, Ahmad al-Zayn, Ibrahim al-Abyarl, Cairo 1381/1962, iv, 300, I. 19. 8 Bibliography: In addition to references mentioned above: al-'AmirI, Bahrljat ol-moliafil, Cairo 1331, i, 212, 398 f.; al-Azrakl, Ta'rzklJ, Makka, ed. F. Wiistenfeld, Leipzig 1858, 51-66; Dahlan, al-Sira alnabawiyya, Cairo 1310, ii, 75 f.; al-Diyarbakrt, Ta'rikh al-khamzs, Cairo 1283, i, 109-112, 153-56, 335, ii, 77 f.; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, ol-Durar fi 'khti$iir 'I-maghiizz wa 'I-siyar, ed. Shawki Dayf, Cairo 1386-1966, 224-5; Ibn KathIr, al-Sira al-nabawiyya, ed. Mustafa 'Abd al- Wal,tid, Cairo 1384/1964, i, 94-100, iii, 526-34, 5461. 10,580; Ibn Nasir aI-Din, Djtimi' al-tit;fltir fi mawlid al-nabf al-mukhttir, Ms. Cambridge, Or. 913, fols. 112b inf.-115b; al-MadjlisI, Bihiir al-tmuuir, Tehran 1384, xxi, 10010, 124-5; Ibn Shahrashub~- Manti~ib tu AM Ttilib, al-Nadjaf 1376/1956, i, 173, 177; al-Makdisi, ai-Bad' wa 'l-ta'rzkh, ed. Cl. Huart, Paris 1919, iv, 125-6, 232-3; al-Mawsili, Ghiiyat al-wasti'il ila ma'riJat al-awti'il, Ms. Cambridge, Qq 33 (10) fols. 29b, 61a, 81b-82a, 102a-b; aI-I:IarbI, al-Manasik, ed. Hamad al-Djasir, al-Riyad 1389/1969, index; al-Suyiltl, al-Kha$a'i$ ol-kubrii; ed. Muhammad Khalil Haras, Cairo 1386/1967, ii, 77; al-Salihi, Subul al-hudii wa 'l-rashiid. fi sirat khayr al-'ibad, ed. Mustafa 'Abd al-Wal,tid, Cairo 1394/1974, ii, 241-2; al-rabarI, Ta'rzkh, index; al-Zurkani, Shar~ al-mawahib al-Iaduniyya, Cairo 1325, ii, 288 f.; W. Caskel, Gamharat an-Nasab, das genealogische Werk des Hisiim ibn Muluunmad al-Kalbz, Leiden 1966, ii, 39-40; Mukatil, Tafsir, Ms. Ahmet iii, 74/i, fols. 150b-151a; Ibn AbI Shayba, Ta'rikh, Ms. Berlin, 9409 (Sprenger 104), fols. 76a-78a; al-Samarkandi, Tcfsir, Ms. Chester Beatty, 3668, i, fols. 264b-265b; al-ShiblI, Ma~iisin al-wasii'il fi ma'ri/at al-awii'il, Ms. B.M., Or. 1530, fols. 59b-61b; W. Montgomery Watt, Muhammad at Mecca, Muhammad at Medina, Oxford 1953, 1956, indices; F. Buhl, Das Leben Muhammeds, repr. Heidelberg 1955, 279-80, 304-5. Further references in sources already mentioned in the article: alKala'I, al-Ikti/ii', i, 71-80; al-Kazarunr, al-Sira al-nabawiyya, fo1. 246ab; 'AIr b. Burhan al-Dm, ol-Siro. al-~alabiyya, ii, 81-121; al-BaladhurI, Futu~ al-buldiin, index; idem, Ansiib al-ashrii/, i, index; Nur al-Drn alHaythamI, Marljma' al-zawa'id, vi, 161 f.; Ibn 'Arabi, Mu~ii¢arat alobriir , i, 335-6, 427, ii, 292 1. 1, 36-42, 291; Ibn Hisham, al-Sira alnabawiyya, index; al-Tsaml, Simt al-nurljum al-'awiilz, i, 159 f., 181-6, ii, 123-4, 173-4; al-BakrI, Mu'rljam mii 'sta'rljam, index; al-Muttaki al-HindI, Kanz al-'ummiil, x, nos. 2085, 2092, 2114, 2123, xiii, nos. 338-46, 395-6, 402-5, 409, 425; Muhammad b. ij:abIb, al-Mu~abbar, ol-Muncmmok, indices; Ibn Durayd, al-Ishti~ii~, index; al-Fasr, Shi/a' al-ghariim, i, 359-78, ii, 44-59; al- Wakidt, al-Maghiizz, index.