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dreams.pdf The interpretation of dreams An unknown manuscript of Ibn Qutaybas "'Ibarat al-Ru'ya" In memory of Gustave von Grunebaum A manuscript of Ibn Qutayba's compilation on dreams! hitherto considered Iost has recently turned up in the Library of the Hebrew University.s The manuscript contains 67 folios of text (15 lines to each page), carefully written in small, vowelled, clear script; three additional folios contain a Iist of contents written by a later scribe, a remark of a reader and a waqf note. The colophon records the date of copying and the place: Damascus, 20 Dhu l-qa'da 845 H.3 The title of the book as given on the title page and in the colophon is "t Ibdrat al-ru'yii", But the title recorded on fol. Ib and at the end of the book is "Ta'bir al-ru'yii", The book seems to have been known by both titles. Ibn al-Nadtm mentions the compilation as "Kitdb ta'bir al-ru'yd" ,4 Ibn Khayr records it as "Kitdb 'ibiirat al-ru'yii",» I See G. Lecomte, Ibn Qutayba (Damas, 1965), p. 157; T. Fahd, La Divination Arabe (Leiden, 1966), pp. 316-328, 350, no. 97. Lengthy passages from Ibn Qutayba's work are quoted in Ps. Ibn Sirin's Muntakhab al-kaliim fi tafsir al-ahliim, Cairo 1382/1963. 2 Collection Yahuda, Ms. Ar, 196. I should like to express my gratitude to Dr. M. Nadav and Mr. E. Wust who kindly let me read the manuscript and provided me with the needed photographs. An edition of the text is now in course of preparation. I should also like to thank the following libraries and their librarians: the British Museum, Cambridge University Library, the Chester Beatty Collection, the Bodleian Library, London University Library, the Sulaymaniyya and Ankara University. 3 Fol. 67a: ... ammd ba'du qad waqa'a l-fariighu min kitiibati hiidhihi l-nuskhati l-sharifati l-mausiimati bi-kitdbi 'ibdrati I-ru'yii 'alii yadi I· 'abdi I-rla'ifi l-nahlfi l-riiji ilii rahmati lldhi l-biiri yal;yii bni muhammadin il-bukhiiri fi 'ishrtna min dhi l-qa'dati sanata khamsin wa-arba'ina wa-thamdni mi'atin bi-dimashqa l-mahriisati $iinaha lldhu fa'ii,'ii 'an il·afiit wa-l-nakabiit. alIiihumma ghfir li-kiitibihi wa-li-man nazara fthi dmin, yii rabba 1-'alamtn. 4 AI- Fihrist (Cairo, 1348), p. 439 ult. 5 Fahrasa, ed. F. Codera, J. Ribera Tarrago (Saragossa, 1893; reprint Baghdad 1963), p. 266. Al-Zurqanl refers evidently to our manuscript quoting from Ibn Qutayba's Kitab usiili l-ibiira (al-Zurqanl, Sharb 'alii l-mawdhib al-ladunniyya, Cairo, 1328, VII, 173). The compilation of al-Kirmanl is quoted by al-Qlic;lI"Iyad, Tarttb al-maddrlk, ed. Abroad Bakir The chain of the transmitters of the book is given as follows: Abu I-Hasan 'Abd al-Baqi b. Faris b. Ahmad aI-Muqri', known as Ibn Abl l-Fath aIMi~ri;6 Abu Hafs 'Umar b. Muhammad b. 'Arak;? Abu Bakr Ahmad b. Marwan al-Malikl.f The Ms begins: qara'tu 'alii l-shaykhi l-sdlihi abi l-hasani 'abdi l-bii qi ... The name of the scholar who read the Ms aloud to Abu IHasan is not mentioned throughout the book. The remark on the margin of the colophon: qdbalndhii 'alii nuskhati l-asli bi-qadri l-imkdni may support the assumption that the scribe copied it from the copy of the student who read it to Abu l-Hasan. It may be worthwhile to remark that Ahmad b. Marwan al-Malikl, the first person in the chain of the transmitters of our manuscript, is also recorded by Ibn Khayr as the transmitter of his manuscript.? Our manuscript is thus the earliest extant Muslim compilation on dreams. Ibn Qutayba stresses that he derived his material from the "science of aIKirmanit? and others" and undertakes to explain the principles of oneiromancy overlooked by the former scholars.! I This passage indicates that Ibn Qutayba's compilation forms in fact a continuation of an earlier Muslim tradition of oneiromancy, which may be traced to the first half of the second century. The continuity of transmission of the lore of oneiromancy in later centuries is represented by the personality of Abu Muhammad 'Abd a1Rahman b. Muhammad b. 'Attab!2 who transmitted to Ibn Khayr the compilations of al-Kirmani and Ibn Qutayba, the commentary on the book of a1Kirmani compiled by AbU 'Abdallah Muhammad b. Yahya b. al-Hadhdha'.U Mahmud (Beirut-Tripoli 1387/1967),IV, 734, as Kitiib al-libiira (mentioning the commentary on it "al-Bushrii fi 'ibiirat al-ru'yii" by Muhammad b. Yahya al-Hadhdha"; this commentary is mentioned in an abbreviated manner as "al-Bushra" ib., IV, 429); it is also recorded as Kitab al-libam by Ibn Khayr, op. cit., p. 266 (he records however the commentary of alHadhdha' under the title "Kitiib al-bushrii fi ta'wfl al-ru'yii", ib., p. 267). 6 See on him al-Jazarl, Ghdyat al-nihiiya Ii tabaqiit al-qurrii'; ed. G. Bergstrasser (Cairo, 1932), I, 357, no. 1529; he was a student of 'Urnar b. 'Arak ; d. ca. 450 H. 7 See on him al-Jazari, op. cit. I, 597, no. 2431 (d. 388 H). 8 See on him Ibn Hajar, Lisdn al-mizdn, I, 309, no. 931. He was the most prolific transmitter of the lore of Ibn Qutayba (wa-kiina min arwii l-ndsi 'an ibni qutayba). D. 333 H; but see al·QiiQi'IyiiQ, op. cit., I, 27, I. 19. 9 Fahrasa, p. 267, I. 1. 10 In text: Ibrahim b. 'Abd al-Malik, which seems to be an error; read: b. 'Abdallah; see on him Fahd, op. cit., pp. 316, 345 no. 67. 11 "Ibdra, fol. 17a: ... qdla abu muhammadin: wa-sa-ukhbiruka 'an ta'wlli l-ahddtthi mii naf'aluhu /aka mithiilan, thumma nastru ilii ikhbarika 'an al-usidi nakhtasiru (textyahtarliru) li-dhdlika min "ilmiibrahima bni 'abdi lliih! (text: "abdi /-maliki) l-kirmiini wa-ghayrihi wa-mufaddalin (perhaps: mufassalint min al-akhbiiri muhtawin 'alii jumalin jiimi'atin kiifiyattn li-man ahsana tadbirahii wa-u'ina bi-l-tafsiri 'alayhii wa-ubayyinu min 'ilali tilka l-usiil! mii aghfalahu 1mutaqaddimiina fa-lam yadhkuriihu in shii'a [lliihu] wa-lii quwwata ilia bi-lldhi. 12 See on him al-Dhahabl, Tadhkirat al-/.zufJaz, Hyderabad 1377/1958, IV, 1271 (d. 520 H). 13 See on him al-Qad! 'Iyad, op. cit., IV, 429, 733-734 (d. 416 H). 68 The interpretation of dreams the book of Abu Dharr al-Harawlt- and the book of Nu'ayrn b. Hammad.t> The compilation of Ibn Qutayba is divided into two parts: an extensive introduction (fols. 1b-25a) followed by a compendium of oneiromancy containing forty six chapters (fols. 25a-67b). Lists of chapter headings are given in the Appendix. Our manuscript is, however, not complete. It is, therefore, fortunate that another Ms of this work, Ms. Ankara, Is. Saib Sincer I, 4501 (fols. 180a217b) could be consulted. This Ms contains only the first part of our manuscript, i.e. the introduction; the last folios of this Ms are missing. This missing part of the Ms corresponds to fols. 23a, I. 10 - 25a, I. 11 of our manuscript. A former owner of Ms. Ankara rightly noted on the margin of fol. 217b: "nuqsdnuhu waraqun au waraqayn (!) bi-shahddati wuqu'i hddhii l-bdbifi dkhiri l-fihrisi l-thdniyati l-wdqi'ati ii raqmi 179." On fol. 180a there is in fact a list of twenty three (actually twenty four) chapters into which the introduction is divided; every chapter in this Ms is indeed preceded by a headline which conforms to this list. The missing chapter is No. 24: biib adab al-ta'wil; only the beginning of this chapter is found on fol. 217b; it can however be supplemented from our manuscript. The missing passage in our manuscript, fol. 1b, I. 12, should be supplied from Ms. Ankara fo1s. 180b, I. 8 - 182a ult.; the missing passage 011 fol. 3a, I. 10 has to be supplied from Ms. Ankara fols. 184a, I. 7 - 185b ult. On fol. 5a, I. 8 of our manuscript the short chapter "biib al-ta'wil bi-l-ma'nd" from Ms. Ankara fols. 188b-189a ought to be added. On fol. 17a, I. 4 seven chapters from Ms. Ankara (fols. 203a-212b) have to be supplemented. The missing material on fol. 1b of Ms. Jerusalem, which can be supplemented from Ms. Ankara, is of some importance. Counting the wonders and signs of God's creation, Ibn Qutayba stresses the Oneness of God and the grace granted to man by the fact that he has been enabled to smell, see, hear and taste in dream as well as to laugh and to cry, to cross countries while his own body is reclining, his senses inactive and his legs motionless. These wonders associated with dream which were granted to man by God caused some unbelieving people in ancient times (tahayyara qaumun min mutaqaddimi l-mulhidint to be in a state of perp1exion. They drew the conclusion that everything in the world has to be considered as the effect of phantasy and imagination. The sleeping person is indeed certain that the appearances of his dream are realities exactly as he who is awake considers the objects which he perceives to be realities. Ibn Qutayba quotes arguments already adduced in ancient times against this opinion. Ibn Qutayba stresses that the majority of people in the period of the Jahi14 15 Ibn Khayr, See on him al-QiiQi 'IyiiQ, op. cit,. IV, 696-698 (d. 435 H). op. cit., pp. 266-267. 69 liyya and Islam believed in dreams with the exception of a group of atheistic materialists (qaumun min al-zanddiqa yaqillilna bi-I-dahri) and a group of physicians in ancient times. Another group of physicians who were upholders of religion ial-dayyiiniina min al-atibba') partly accepted and partly refuted the veracity of dreams. The reality of dreams was based on the story of Joseph recounted to the People of the Book as well as on the stories recorded by transmitters (of stories) and prophets. The denial of the truth of dreams was based on the assumption that content and form of dreams are conditioned by the difference in the temperaments of men and the preoccupation of their mind.16 Ibn Qutayba admits the existence of such dreams, argues however that they belong to the category of "confused dreams (aq.ghath). True dreams are brought by angels; they are copied from the Tablet in Heaven and contain good tidings or warnings against performing bad deeds. The truth of these dreams can only be denied by a stubborn man or an apostate. The passage missing in our manuscript, fo1. 3a, and which has to be inserted from Ms. Ankara fols. 184a-185b deals with the denotations of the words "nafs" and "rub". The additional chapters in Ms. Ankara, fols. 203a-212b, contain anecdotes about dreams of the Prophet, his Companions and pious men. Initially, the field of dream interpretation had to obtain recognition as legitimately Isiamic and to get the approval of the orthodox circles by reference to the permission or injunction of the Prophet. The Prophet is indeed said to have commented on Sura x 64 ("Those who believe and are godfearing for them is good tidings in the present Iife and in the world to come") and stated that "good tidings in the present Iife" refer to good dreams which they have in their sleep.!? The importance of dreams was emphasized by the utterance attributed to the Prophet in which he established the relation between prophecy and dream: "Prophecy has passed", said the Prophet, "and there remain only bearers of good tidings, good dreams which a man sees or which are shown to him in sleep."18 16 See N. Bland, JRAS, p.7. "On the Muhanunedan Science of TabIr, or Interpretation of Dreams" 1856, p. 128; Ps. Ibn SIrin, Muntakhab al-kaliim ft tafslr al-ahldm (Cairo, 1382/1963), 17 'Ibiira, fol. 2, II. 1-2; al-Tabarl, Tafsir, ed. Mal)miid Muhammad Shakir (Cairo, 1960), XV, 124-139, nos. 17717-17756; al-Qurtubl, Tafslr (Ireprintl Cairo, 1387/1967), VIII, 358; al-Suyutt, al-Durr al-manthio: (Cairo, 1314), Ill, 311-313; al-Hakim al-Naysabiirl, aI-Mus· tadrak (Hyderabad, 1342), IV, 391; al-Khargiishl, al-Bishdra wa-l-nidhiira fi ta'bir al-ru'yii wa-l-muriiqaba, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 6262, fol. 2b. 18 'Ibara, fol. Ib, penult. (reported on the authority of Unun Kurz al-Ka'biyya ; see on her Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba (Cairo, 1325/1907), VIII, 272, no. 1459); al-Hakim, op. cit., IV, 391; 70 The interpretation of dreams An early"? and widely current tradition gives an evaluation of a good dream by stating, on the authority of the Prophet, that it is one out of forty six parts of prophecy.20 True, sound and good dreams were of course those of the Prophet. The Prophet saw in his dream that he rode a camel with a ram behind him and that the edge of his sword was broken. The Prophet predicted that he would kill a Ieader of the (troops of the) enemy (= the ram - K) and that a man from his family will be killed (= the broken edge of his sword - K). In fact the Ieader of the enemy Talha b. abl Talha and the uncle of the Prophet, Hamza, were both killed (in the battle of UJ:!ud).21 The Prophet dreamt that two bracelets were put on his arms; he threw al-Suyutl, al-Durr, III, 312; al-Raghib al-Isfahanl, Muhddariit al-udabii' (Beirut, 1961) I, 149; al-Tibrlzl, Mishkiit al-masiibib (Karachi, 1350), p. 394; al-Zurqanl, op. cit., VII, 163; al-Majlisi, Bil;!ar al-an war (Tehran, 1390), LXI, 177, 192; al-Khargushi, op. cit., foJ. 2a; G. E. von Grunebaum, "The Cultural Function of the Dream as Illustrated by Classical Islam", in: G. E. von Grunebaum and Roger Caillois, The Dream and Human Societies (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1966), p. 7, note 2. 19 Recorded in Ma'mar b. Rashid's Jiimi'; Feyzullah 541, fol. 152a penult.-152b. 20 "Ibiira, foJ. 2a; Muhammad Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baql, al-Lu'lu' wa-l-marjiin fimd ttafaqa "alayhi l-shaykhiin (Cairo, 1368/1949), III, 102-103, nos. 1457-1460; al-Haytharnl, Majma' al-zawii'id (Beirut, 19(7), VII, 172; al-Hakim, op, cit., IV, 390; al-Raghib al-Isfahanl, op. cit., I, 149; al-Tibrtzl, op. cit., pp, 394, 396; al-Suyutl, al-Durr, III, 312-313; al-Majlisl, op. cit., LXI, 175, 178, 191; al-Jarraht, Kashf al-khafe' (Beirut, 1351), I, 436, no. 1407; al'Azlzl, al-Siriij al-munir (Cairo, 1377/1957), II, 322; al-Hanaft, al-Mu'tasar min al-mukhtasar (Hyderabad, 1362), II, 231; and see other versions: Abii Nu'aym, Hilyat al-auliyii' (Cairo, 1351/1932),VIII, 196 (a ninetieth part); al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXI, 167, 177 (a seventieth part); Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol, 152b (a seventieth part); al-Tabarant, al-Mu 'jam al-saghir, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad 'Uthman (al-Madina, 1388/1968),II, 56 (a seventieth part); al-Suyutl, al-Durr, III, 312-313 (a seventieth part); al-HanafI, op. cit., II, 231 (a seventieth or fiftieth part); al-Tabarl, op. cit., XV, 132, no. 17730 (a part of forty four parts, or a sixtieth part); ib., p. 131, no. 17729 (a part of forty nine parts); al-Zurqani, op. cit., VII, 162-165 (a part of forty four, forty five, twenty four, twenty five, fifty, seventy, seventy six parts of prophecy); and see al-Haythaml, op. cit., VII, 173-174 (a fortieth, a fiftieth, a sixtieth part of prophecy); al-Qastallant, Irshdd al-sdrt (Cairo, 1323), X, 123-127 (a part of forty six, forty four, forty, fifty, seventy, seventy six, twenty six parts of prophecy); cf. A. Kristianpoler, Monumenta Talmudica II, I: "Traum und Traumdeutung" (Wien-Berlin, 1923), p. 25, no. 69 (I;!alom ebad mi-shishim fj·nbu'a); and see ibid., no. 70, and see ibid., p. XI); A. Lowinger, Der Traum in der jiidischen Literatur (Leipzig, 1908), p. 4. 21 "Ibdra, foJ. 52b, inf.; al-Waqidl, al-Maghdzi, ed. M. Jones (London, 1966), I, 209, 225-226, 307; al-Suyutl, al-KhO$ii'i$ al-kubrii, ed. Muhammad KhalIl Haras (Cairo, 1386/ 1967), I, 529; al-Haythamt, op, cit., VII, 180; al-Zurqanl, op. cit., VII, 174, 184-185; Ps. Ibn Slrln, Muntakhab al-kaldm It tafsir al·al;!liim (Cairo, 1382/1963), p. 186 inf.; al-Majlisi op. cit., LXI, 179; Fahd, op. cit., p. 282; al-Khargtishl, op. cit., foJ. 142a. 71 them away and they fell down. He expounded this dream by the appearance of the two false prophets Musaylima and a1-Aswad a1-'AnsI.22 The Prophet saw in a dream reddish-white and black sheep (ghanam) coming to him. He interpreted the reddish-white ones as referring to non-Arabs, the black ones as referring to the Arabs and predicted that non-Arabs will embrace Islam and join the Arabs.23 The fate of Islam was revealed to the Prophet in another dream: he saw himself seated in the house of 'Uqba b. Rafi' where dates of Ibn Tab24 were served. He interpreted it by using verbal associations, predicting that Islam will gain excellence in this and in the next world ('raft' - rif'a) and that the faith of Isiam has already become pure (tab - taba).25 A tradition attributed to the Prophet divided dreams into good and evil; good dreams come from God, evil ones from Satan. "If you see a displeasing appearance in your dream, seek refuge from Satan in God and spit three times at your left side, then it will not harm you", said the Prophet. A special prayer was devised: "I seek refuge in the God of Musa, 'lsa and Ibrahim from the evil of the dream, lest it harm me in my faith or in (my dealings in) this world or in my sustenance. Strong is the man protected by God, glory and power are His. There is no God but Him."26 22 "Ibdra, fol. 46b, sup.; Ibn al-Athlr, al-Nihdya, ed. Mahmiid Muhammad al-Tanaht (Cairo, 1385/1965), V, 90; al-Haythaml, op. cit., VII, 181; Ibn Kathir, Shamii'il al-rasiil ed. Mustafa 'Abd al-Wal)id (Cairo, 1386/1967), p. 387; Ibn al-Jauzl, al·Wa/ii bi-ahwdli, l-mustafd, ed. Mustafa 'Abd al-Wahid (Cairo, 1386/1966), II, 633; Ibn al-Athtr, Jdmi' al-usid, ed. Muhammad Hamid al-Fiqi (Cairo, 1374/1955), XII, 376, no. 4980; al-Qastallani, op. cit., X, 154-156; Hamrnam b. Munabbih, al-Sahtfa al-sahtha, ed. Muhammad Hamidullah (Hyderabad, 1375/1956), p. 119, no. 134. 23 'Ibara, fo1. 53a; al-Hakim, op. cit., IV, 395; al-Suyutl, Ta'rikh al-khulafii', ed. Muhammad Muhyi l-Dln 'Abd al-Harnld (Cairo, 1371/1952), p. 105; al-Haythaml, op. cit., VII, 183; Ibn al-Jauzi, op, cit., 11,631; al-Majlisl, op. cit., LXI, 231; I. Goldziher, Muslim Studies, trans1. C. R. Barber and S. M. Stem (London, 1967), I, 112; Ahmad b. l;Iajar al-Haytaml, al-Sawii'iq al-muhriqa fi I-raddi 'alii ahli l-bida'i wa-l-zandaqa, ed. 'Abd al-Wahhab 'Abd al-Latlf (Cairo, 1375), p. 33; al-Khargusht, op. cit., fo1. 170a. 24 See about this kind of dates al-Tha'alibl, Thimdr al-quliib, ed. Muhammad Abii I-FaQI Ibrahim (Cairo, 1384/1965), p. 266, no. 387; al-Bakri, Mu'jam mii sta'jam, ed. Mustafa aISaqa (Cairo, 1364/1945), I, 37, note 2. 25 "Ibdra, fo1. 4b, sup.; al-Tibrizi, op. cit., p. 395; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, IV, 250; al-Zurqant, op. cit., VII, 186; Ibn al-Jauzl, op. cit., II, 631; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 9. 26 'Ibara, fo1. 24b; cf. Ma'mar b. Rashid, op, cit., fo1. 152a-b; aI-HaythamI, op. cit., VII, 174-175, 181; al-Hakim, op. cit., IV, 392; al-Khattb al-Baghdadl, Ta'rikh Baghdad (Cairo, 1349/1931), XII, 484; al-Suyirtl, al-Durr, III, 313; al-Tibrlzi, op. cit., p. 394; al-Zurqant, op. cit., VII, 168-169; al-Shibli, Akiim al-marjdn, ed. 'Abdallah Muhammad al-Sadlq (Cairo, 1376), pp. 182-184; al-Majlisl, op. cit., LXI, 174, 188, 193; Ibn al-Sunni, 'Amal al-yaum wa-l-layla (Hyderabad, 1358), pp. 207-208; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 15; Muhammad Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baql, op. cit., III, 102, no. 1456; N. Bland, "On the Muhammedan Science of Tablr, 72 The interpretation of dreams A dream in which the Prophet appears is considered sound and good. The Prophet is said to have stated: "He who sees me in a dream sees me in reality, because Satan does not take up my appearance".27 Seeing the Prophet in dream is like seeing him in reality. or Interpretation of Dreams" JRAS, 1856, p. 130; cf. Kristianpoler, op. cit., p. 17, nos. 42-43 (and see p. IX); Lowinger, op. cit., pp, 32-33. 27 "Ibiira, fol. 2a; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, Kit. al-mandm, Ms. al-Jazzar (majmii' a), Acre, p, 321; al-Raghib al-Isfahant, op. cit., I, 149; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, ed. Ahmad Muhammad Shakir (Cairo, 1370/1950), V, 138, no. 3410 and p. 304, no. 3798; al-Haythaml, op. cit., VII, 173, 181-183; al-Sharff al-Murtada, Amdli, ed. Muhammad Abu l-Fadl Ibrahim (Cairo, 1373/1954), II, 394; al-Hakim, op. cit., IV, 393; al-Suyutl, al-Khasii'is, III, 339; Abu Nu'ayrn, op. cit., VII, 246; al-Shibll, op, cit., pp. 184-186 ("Ii bayiini anna l-shaytdna la yatamaththalu bi-l-nabiyyi -s-"): cf. Ma'rnar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol. 153a (man ra'dni fi l-mandmi fa-huwa l-haqqu); al-Tibrizt, op. cit., p. 394 (. . .fa-qad ra'a l-haqqar; al-Qastallani, op. cit., X, 133-135, 139 (and see ibid., the version: man ra'iini fi l-mandmi fa-sa-yariini It l-yaqzay; Ibn 'Asakir: Tahdhib ta'rikh, ed. Ahmad 'Ubayd (Damascus, 1349), VI, 380 ult. (man ra'dnl Ii l-mandmi fa-innahu ta yadkhulu l-niira}; al-Khargiishl, op. cit., fo!. 16b. Some scholars included in this category of sound and true dreams the appearance in dreams of prophets, angels, the sun, the lighting stars and clouds containing rain. (See al-Majlisl, op. cit., LXI, 238, quoted from al-Baghawi's Shorb al-sunnai. A remarkable hadith transmitted by al-Tabarani reports that the Prophet stated that Abu Bakr would interpret (sci!. truly - K) the dreams and that his true dreams would form his lot of prophecy. (Ahmad b. Hajar al-Haytami, al-Sawii'iq almuhriqa, ed. 'Abd al-Wahhab 'Abd al-Lattf (Cairo, 1375), p. 67 with a comment of the author on this tradition: inna aba bakrin yu'awwilu I-ru'ya wa-inna ru'ydhu l-sidihata hazzuhu min al-nubuwwati}. Shl'I sources record the tradition about the appearance of the Prophet in a dream with some significant additions. Satan will not appear in the form of the Prophet or of one of the trustees (ausiya', i.e. the Shi"I imams), nor in the form of anyone of the Shi'a. (See this tradition: al-Majlisl, op. cit., LXI, 176; and see the discussion of this tradition ibid., pp. 211, 216, 234-236). Shl'I tradition reports that 'Ali saw the Prophet every night in a dream. The Prophet revealed to him that five of his Companions (among them Abu Bakr and 'Umar) plotted against him and decided to deprive him of the Caliphate, thus violating the injunction of the Prophet. The Prophet informed 'Ali in a dream about the pains suffered by Abu Bakr and 'Urnar on their death-beds in connection with their mischievous deed. (See Sulaym b. Qays, Kitiib al-saqifa, al-Najaf, n.d., pp. 96, 181; quoted by al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXI, 240241). A sunm tradition reported that Anas b. Malik used to see the Prophet almost every night in his dream (Al-Haythaml, op. cit., VII, 182). There are interesting stories about dreams in which the Prophet expresses his opinion concerning religious leaders and scholars, commending, permitting or rejecting their teachings. Yazid b. Hakim saw the Prophet in a dream. He asked him about Sufyan al-Thauri and the Prophet gave a favourable opinion about him. (Ibn Kathlr, Tafsir, Beirut 1385/ 1966, IV, 259). Zayd b. Dawud saw in a dream the Prophet granting Malik b. Anas musk and asking him to divide it among the people. Zayd interpreted musk as representing knowledge (Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 348; al-Qad! 'Iyad, op. cit., I, 375). Abu 'Abdallah saw in a 73 The seriousness of dreams and their interpretation was stressed, as usual, by a hadith. "He who Iies about his dream will be ordered (at the Day of Judgement - K) to join two barley corns and will be put on burning coal."28 Ibn Qutayba defines the dream as a "kind of revelation and a sort of prophecy" (li-annahu jinsun min al-wahyi wa-darbun min The art of oneiromancy, argues Ibn Qutayba, is shrouded in mystery, very complicated and intricate; it is distinguished and sublime. Consequently, the requirements imposed on an interpreter of dreams are manifold as regards qualifications, knowledge and character. While the way to every other science is straight, its principles not being diverse and its standards (maqiiyis) not liable to change, the principles of oneiromancy are changeable according to the position of the person who dreams, his belief, profession, ambitions and the time and period of dreaming. Sometimes a dream is a coined proverb, which has to be interpreted according to the meaning of its words, sometimes it dream a person coming out of a maqsiira in the mosque of Tarsus, quoting the utterance of the Prophet: "Imitate those who will come after me, Abroad b. Hanbal" (Abii Nu'ayrn, op. cit., IX, 185; and see ib., p. 187: a man saw al-Khidr in a dream; he stated that Ahmad b. Hanbal was a truthful person [$iddiq]; and see other dreams about Abroad b. Hanbal, ib., pp. 187-193). Ibrahim b. Musa al-Farra' saw the Prophet in a dream and asked him about the hadiths reported by al-Qasim b. 'Abd al-Rahman on the authority of Abu Umama; the Prop!.et disapproved of them (Ibn I;lajar, Tahdhib, VlII, 324, no. 581). The Prophet recommended Muhammad b. Muslim to record the knowledge of Yahya b. Yahya al-Hanzali (AI-QaQi 'Iyad, op. cit., I, 408). The Prophet ordered in a dream Salama b. Shabib at the age of fifty to refrain from transmission of hadlth ; afterwards the Prophet ordered him to transmit traditions (Ibn 'Asakir, Tahdhib ta'rikh, ed. Abroad 'Ubayd, Damascus 1349, VI, 229). A dream served as means for establishing the Prophet's approval of a Shi'i poet. Sa'd al-Asadl saw the Prophet in a dream. The Prophet asked him to recite a poem of al-Kumayt (Qasida 2 of the Hdshimiyyiit, ed. J. Horowitz, Leiden, 1904, p. 27). After the Prophet had heard the qasida he ordered Sa'd to inform al-Kumayt that as a reward for this poem God forgave him his sins (Al-Mausill, Ghiiyat al-wasii'il, Ms. Cambridge Qq 33 (10), fols. 181b inf. - 182a). The authority of al-Tha'labl, the author of Qi$a$ al-anbiyii', was established by God. Abii l-Qasim al-Qushayri, the author of the well-known "Risiila", saw God in a dream. While God was talking with al-Qushayri He remarked: "The righteous man has come"; it was al-Tha'Iabl (Al-Safadl, al-Wiifi bi-l-wafayiit, VII, 308, Beirut 1389/1969, ed. Ihsan 'Abbas). 28 'Ibdra, foJ. 24b; Abroad b. Hanbal, op. cit., V, 130, no. 3383; al-Hakim, op. cit., IV, 392; al-Haythaml, op. cit., VII, 174; al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXI, 183; Ibn al-Athlr, Jiimi' atusul, XII, 332-333, nos. 9348-9350; al-'AzIzI, op, cit., III, 386; Bland, op. cit., p, 131. (And see another version of this tradition 'Ibdra, foJ. 24b); Anonymous, al-Dhakhira wa-kashfu l-tauqi' Ii-ahli l-basira, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 3922, foJ. 29b; al-Khargushl, op. cit., fol. 8a. 29 'Ibdra, foJ. 2a, I. 4. 74 The interpretation of dreams has to be interpreted antithetically. Sometimes the content of the dream refers to another person (like the dreamer's brother, or his superior or peer).3o Sometimes the dreams are confused (a¢ghiith). Due to the intricate character of dreams the requirements from the interpreter are wider than in the field of any other science. "For every scholar of some branch of the sciences", says Ibn Qutayba, "the tool of his science can be sufficient for practising it; but the oneirocritic has to be a scholar of Qur'an and haditlt in order to interpret dreams according to their ideas, to be acquainted with Arab proverbs and rare verses of poetry, to have a knowIedge of Arabic etymology and of current colloquial speech. Besides, he has to be an "adib", gentle, sagacious, endowed with a capacity to judge the countenance of the people, their character-features, their rank and state, to have a knowledge of analogy and an acquaintance with the principles of oneiromancy".31 Only with God's guidance and help will he be pious and pure of sins and get his Iot of the heritage of the prophets, says Ibn Qutayba.32 Ibn Qutayba's intent in his introduction is to set out the ways of oneiromancy and to supply examples of dreams dealt with according to different methods: etymoiogicaI, anti thetical , symbolical and the ones based on Qur'an, hadith, current verses or proverbs.» The many dreams recorded by Ibn Qutayba contain forebodings, stories about reward in Paradise and punishment in Hell, judgements about character and behaviour of people; they reveal some hidden facts, edify and admonish and touch upon a wide range of subjects Iike religious tenets, political conditions, culturallife and moral ideas. The attitude of the orthodox circles towards the heterodox factions in Islam is reflected in the dream of Yazid b. Hanin.34 He saw a man who uttered fatwiis in the mosque of Mecca. He inquired about the man and was told that he was the prophet Joseph. Yazid asked him about drinking nabidh.35 Joseph stated that it was not forbidden, but disliked. Yazid asked about the khawdrij and Joseph answered: "They are Jews." Joseph gave the same 30 'Ibiira, fols. 16b inf. - 17a sup.: Aba Jahl was seen in a dream embracing Islam; this referred to his son 'Ikrima, (See Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol. 153a inf.; Mus'ab b. 'Abdallah al-Zubayrl, Nasab Quraysh, ed. E. Levi-Provencal (Cairo, 1953), p. 311; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, IV, 258, no. 5632). The Prophet saw in a dream AsId b. Abll-'I$ entering Paradise; this referred to his son 'Attab b. AsId (al-'Ibiira, ibid.; cf. Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, IV, 211, no. 5383); cf. Ps. Ibn SIrIn, op. cit., p. 7, n. 3-4. 31 'Ibdra, fol. 2a inf. - 2b sup.; cf. Ps. Ibn SIrIn, op. cit., p. 7; Bland, op. cit., p. 132. 32 "Ibdra, fol. 2b. 33 "Ibdra, fol. 4a; Ps. Ibn SIrIn, op, cit., p. 9. 34 See on him Ibn Hajar, Tahdhtb, XI, 366, no. 711. 35 About drinking nabtdh see e.g.: al-Tahawr, SharI,! mushkil al-iithiir, ed. Muhammad Zuhrl al-Najjar (Cairo, 1388/1968),IV, 215-229; Muhammad Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baql, op. cit., III, 17-18, nos. 1304-1306. 75 answer when asked about the riifida: "They are Jews." YazId could not remember what Joseph said about the Murji'a. "What about a man praying, fasting, carrying out his duties, not trespassing in these things whatsoever?" asked YazId. "That is my message and that of my fathers," said The khawdrij are, as is usual.s? depicted as dogs in another story. The sister of the Khariji Ieader Abu Bilal Mirdas b. Udayya saw her brother in dream in the form of a dog, weeping. He told her that he had been turned after his death into one of the dogs of Hell.38 The activity of the khawiirij is mirrored in another dream, interpreted by Ibn SIrIn. A woman told him that her patroness saw in her dream that two snakes came out from two holes in her house. Two men approached the snakes and milked them from their heads. Ibn SIrIn remarked that a snake cannot give milk;39 the men milked poison. They were Ieaders of the khawdri] who were visiting the woman. They claim that their tenets are the sunna and fitra; but in fact their tenets are poison. The woman (who recounted the dream - K) confirmed that her lady had been a righteous woman until the two Ieaders of the khawdrij came to her and changed her mind.4o The murder of Husayn was also predicted in a dream. Ibn 'Abbas saw in his dream the Prophet with dishevelled hair, dust coloured, holding in his hand a bottle filled with blood. When asked about it the Prophet said: "It is the blood of al-Husayn; I am collecting it through the night." Later the date of the dream was checked; that night al-Husayn was in fact killed.s! fol. 13a. See the tradition al-khawdrij kildb al-ndr: Ma'rnar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol. 4a; al-Muttaqi l-Hindl, Kanz al-tummdl (Hyderabad, 1383/1963), XI, 182, no. 886; al-Tha'alibl, Thimdr al· qulub, p. 394, no. 622. 38 "Ibiira, fol. 14b; al-Jahiz, al-Hayawiin, ed. 'Abd al-Salam Hartin (Cairo, 1384/1965\ 1,271. 39 Milk denotes in Muslim oneiromancy true belief, the fitra; see 'Ibara, fol. 36b, ult.: wa-man ra'ii annahu shariba labanan fa-hiya l-fitratu; al-Haythamt, op. cit., VII, 183. 40 "Ibdra, fol. 17b; al-Jahiz, al-Hayawiin, IV, 269; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op, cit., p. 208; cf. Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., II, 277. 41 'Ibara, fol. 20b; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p, 320; al-Hakim, op. cit., IV, 398; alGhazzall, Ibya' 'uliim al-dtn (Cairo, 1352/1933), IV, 431; cf. Haythaml, op. cit., IX, 193 ult. - 194 sup.; Ibn KathIr, Shama'il al-rasul, ed. Mu~tafii 'Abd al-Wahid (Cairo, 1386/ 1967), p. 447; al-MajIisl, op. cit., XLIV, 239; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 282; Fahd, op. cit., p. 296; Muhammad b. Ahmad al-TamImi, al-Mihan, Ms. Cambridge Qq. 235 (8), fol. 48a; al-Suyfltl, al-Khasii'i« al-kubrii, IT, 452; al-Dhahabl, Ta'rikh al-Isldm (Cairo, 1367), II, 349; al-Yafi 'I, Mir' at al-jindn (Hyderabad, 1339), I, 134; al- 'Isaml, Simt al-nujiim al- 'awal; (Cairo, 1380), III, 78; al-Tabarst, I'Iiim al-warii (Tehran, 1338), p. 217; al-Ganjt, Kifiiyat altalib Ii mandqib 'Ali b. abi Tdlib, ed. Muhammad Hadt l-AminI (al-Najaf, 1390/1970), p. 428. 36 'Ibara, 31 76 The interpretation of dreams The attitude of the orthodox circles towards compilations of nasab is reflected in the story of the dream of aI-KaibI. He saw himself on the Day of Judgement. He was brought into the presence of God, Who rebuked him for "compiling genealogies which he did not know" and ordered to lead him to Hell. On his way a1-Kalbi met the Prophet and asked him to intercede for him with God, mentioning the merit of having compiled a commentary on the Qur'an. The Prophet ordered 'Ali, who was in his company, to interrogate al-Kaibi. AI-Kalbi having answered the questions well, 'Ali reported the fact to the Prophet, who interceded for him and he was let free. He sat down with the Prophet and asked him when the Umayyad rule was going to end. The fall of the Umayyad dynasty happened in fact at the date fixed by the Prophet in his answer to al-Kalbl.t- The opposition of orthodox circles to dubious genealogies, the esteem for commentaries of the Qur'an, the desire to know the dates of the rise and fall of dynasties and the belief in the intercession of the Prophet are reflected in this story. The negative attitude towards the Umayyads is mirrored in a passage deaIing with the meanings of "soul" and "spirit". The spirits of the wicked people gather in Barhut.O On the cornice of a Iarge house in 'Uman there used to shelter an owl. Some night another owl came and stood at its side. The 'Umani owl asked it who it was and it said: "I am the spirit of al-Walid b. 'Abd I-Malik and I am on my way to Barhut.t'+' When the date was checked it tallied with the date of the death of al-Walid. Ibn Qutayba states that the story resembles jahili-beliefs about the hiima as reflected in the verse of Abu Duwad al-Iyadi: sullita l-mautu wa-l-maniinu 'alayhim wa-lahum Ii sadd l-maqdbiri hdmu Death and fate were imposed upon them and they have in the birds of graves their (embodied) spirits. and stresses that the Prophet abolished this belief.45 'Ibiira, fols. lOb-Ita. See Yaqut, Mu'jam al-buldiin (Beirut, 1374/1955), I, 405; and see al-Majlisl, op. cit., LX, 206, 239. 44 'Ibara, fols. 3b-4a; al-Samarqandt, Qurrat at-iuyun (Cairo, 1354/1935),p. 93 (on margin of Mukhtasar Tadhkirat al-Qurtubi; but here the owl is the spirit of 'Abd al-Malik). Another anti-Umayyad interpretation of a dream is reported on the authority of Ibn al-Musayyab. A girl saw in her dream that Moses appeared in Syria. He held in his hand a stick and walked on the surface of the water. Ibn al-Musayyab stated that if this dream be true 'Abd aJ-Malik died this night. He explained how he arrived at this conclusion: God sent Moses in order to shatter the tyrants. He did not find a tyrant (to whom this dream might refer - K) except 'Abd al-Malik (Al-Khargiishl, op. cit., fol. 15a). 45 The hadith: la 'adwd wa-la hdma wa-lii safara is analysed by Abu 'Ubayd in his Gharib al-badtth, I, 27 (the verse of Abu Duwad is recorded there); cf. Ibn Athlr, al-Nihiiya, V, 283. 42 43 77 The story of the dream of Ghalib al-Qattan+ reflects the struggle of the orthodoxy against innovators. He saw in his dream Malik b. Dinar wearing clothes Iike those which he used to wear in mosque. Malik advised him to refrain from the company of rich worldly people and unlawful innovators.s" Qur'an versus poetry is symbolized in the dream of A'sha Hamdan+s which he told to al-Sha'bl, He saw in his dream that he exchanged wheat for barley. Al-Sha'bi interpreted it that he exchanged Qur'an for poetry. Ibn Qutayba remarks: "The meaning of wheat and barley was here interpreted by Qur'an and poetry. Would a man of the ahl al-ra'y49 dream this dream it would be interpreted as exchange of hadith. for ra'y."50 The role of Abu Hanlfa in Isiam is attested in the following dream: AbU Hanlfa saw in a dream that he was digging the bones of the Prophet; (he collected them and pressed them to his breast). Ibn SIrIn was told this dream and said: "This is a man who will revive the sunna of the Prophet.s! The dream served sometimes as confirmation of the truth and reliability of a hadith. 'Ubaydullah b. 'Adi b. a1-Khiyar52 considered a Iie the hadith: "The molar-tooth of the unbeliever in Hell is Iike the mountain of Ui}.ud",53 which was reported by Abu Hurayra. 'Ubaydullah dreamt that he had an ulcer on his finger; he scratched it and it grew and became like the mountain of Uhud, He went to Abu Hurayra and asked him to beg for him God's pardon, which Abu Hurayra did.54 Ibn Qutayba relates his own dream about a hadith. He saw in a dream Abu Dharr who transmitted to him the following utterance of the Prophet: "God said: 'He who approaches Me by the measure of a span I shall approach him by the measure of an arm; he who approaches Me by the measure of an arm I shall approach him by the measure of two arms; he who comes forth to Me walking I shall hurry to him'." When Ibn Qutayba woke up he asked about 46 See on him al-Dhahabl, Mizan al-i'tiddl, ed. 'AJI Muhammad al-Bijawl (Cairo, 1382/ 1963), III, 330, no. 6642; Ibn l;Iajar, Tahdhib, VIII, 242, no. 444. 47 'Ibara, fol. 15a; Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., II, 380 sup. 48 See on him a1-Amidi, al-Mu'talif wa-l-mukhtalif, ed. F. Krenkow (Cairo, 1354), p. 14, no. 15; Ibn Habtb, Asmii' al·mughtalin (Nawadtr al-makhtutdt, ed. 'Abd al-Salam Harun (Cairo, 1374/1955),VII, 265-266). 49 See Al;Qii.b a1-ra'y, BIZ, 692 (1. Schacht). 50 'Ibara, fol. 9b. 51 'Ibiira, fol. 34b; al-Ibshtht, al-Musta/raf(Cairo, 1308), II, 80. (See the striking remark of Ibn Slrin: md yanhaghi lt-abadin min ah/i hadha l-zamdni an yard hddhihi I-ru'ya). S2 See on him Ibn I;Iajar, Tahdhib, VIII, 36, no. 67. S3 See a1·'AzIzI, op. cit., II, 410; al-Suytitl, al-Kha$a'i$, III, 9; al-Jarraht, op. cit" II, 34, no. 1637. 54 'Ibara, fol. lla. 78 The interpretation of dreams the hadltli and was told that Abu Dharr and Abu Hurayra transmitted this l;adith.55 Sometimes a peculiar word, or a curious one, is revealed and elucidated in a dream, 'Abdallah b. 'A'idh al-Thumali56 promised Ghudayf b. al-Harith-" on his death-bed to tell him what befell him after death. 'Abdallah appeared to him in a dream and said: "We barely escaped (scil., pain - K); we met the Lord, Who forgave the sins and did not punish for the bad deeds except the al;rii{l" (whom He did punish - K); Ghudayf asked who were the al;rdt;l. 'Abdallah explained the word as denoting people who are pointed at with the fingers secretly. Ibn Qutayba discusses several words of this root (I; r t;l) and accepts 'Abdallah's definition of this word.58 There is a dream which shows how faithful a believer Abu Bakr was. The Prophet, says the story, fraternized between Salman and Abu Bakr. One night Salman had a dream after which he turned away from Abu Bakr. When asked by Abu Bakr about his behaviour Salman told him that he had seen him (i.e. Abu Bakr) in a dream, his hands fastened to his neck. Abu Bakr explained the dream as denoting that he had his hands fettered so as to prevent him from doing evil deeds until the Day of Judgement. The truth of this interpretation was subsequently established by the Prophet.s? A similar tendency can be discerned in the following story: Rabi'a b. Umayya recounted a dream of his to Abu Bakr: "I was in a fertile land, then I moved into a land struck by barrenness. Your hands (i.e. Abu Bah's) were fastened to your neck and you were at the side of Sarir b. Abi l-Hashr." 55 'Ibiira, fol. 12a; al-MundhirJ, al-Targhib wa-l-tarhib, ed. Muhammad Muhyl l-Dln 'Abd al-Harnld (Cairo, 1381/1962), V, 289, no. 4532 (and see ibid., no. 4531); al-Sharlf al-Radiyy, al·Majaztit al-nabawiyya, ed. Mahmud Mustafa (Cairo, 1356/1937), p. 272, no. 287 (with an interpretation of the !Jadith); AbU Nu'aym, op. cit., IV, 101; Ma'rnar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol. 170a. The reliability of the hadlth: inna ahadakum yujma'u khalquhu ... , transmitted by Ibn Mas'Iid, was established by the Prophet in a dream. Muhammad b. Yazid al-Asfatl (see on him Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, IX, 525, no, 861) saw the Prophet in a dream and asked him about this hadith, reported by al-A 'mash on the authority on Ibn Mas'ud, The Prophet stated that he himself reported this utterance to Ibn Mas'ud and repeated this statement three times. "May God forgive al-A'rnash, as he transmitted it, and may God forgive those who transmitted it before him and those who will transmit it after him", said the Prophet. (Ibn Rajab, Jiimi' I-'ulilm wa-l-hikam, ed. Muhammad al-Ahmadt AbU I·NUr, Cairo, 1970, I, 103; on al-A'mash [Sulayman b. Mihran] see aI-Dhahabi, Tadhkirat al-huffdz; I, 154, no. 149; Ibn Hibban, Kitiib al-thiqdt, ed. 'Abd al-Khaliq al-Afghanl (Hyderabad, 1388/1968), p.90). S6 See on him Ibn Sa'd. Tabaqdt (Beirut, 1377/1958),VII, 415. 57 See on him Ibn Hajar, al-Isdba, V, 189, no. 6906; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VII, 443. 58 "Ibdra, fol. 16a; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VII, 415; Ibn AbI l-Dunya, al-Mandm, pp. 297, 327; see al-ZamakhsharI, al-Fd'iq, ed. 'Ali Muhammad al-Bijawl and Muhammad Abii I-Fa41 Ibrahim (Cairo, 1971), I, 276; L'A, s.v.1J r 4. 59 •Ibdra, fol. 9a. 79 Abu Bakr interpreted the dream as follows: "Your dream is true. You will abandon belief for unbelief; my affairs were destined for me righteously (i.e., my hands will not reach out for anything wrong - K) and I shall remain in a state of joy (sarir -> surur) until the Day of Resurrection (f:zashr)." It is told that Rabl'a indeed embraced Christianity and left for Byzantiurn.w Many stories of dreams predict the rule of the first Caliphs, the rise of the Umayyad-dynasty and thefttan, reflecting often the conflicting religio-political views of the various factions of Muslim society.e! 60 'Ibara, fol. 19a; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, II, 224, no. 2746. of the two caliphs after the Prophet was predicted according to his dream in which he saw himself drawing a bucket from a well. He was followed in this action by Abu Bakr, who drew however no more than two buckets with little force. Then he was followed by 'Umar. The bucket grew in his hands very large and he drew it with the greatest energy. See this story, Ma'rnar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol. 18a; Abu 'Ubayd, Gharib al-hadlth, 1,87; Ibn Abi Hatim, Kit. al-'ilal, Ms. Chester Beatty 3516, fol. 286b; al-Bayhaql, Ma'rifat al-sunan wa-l-dthdr, ed. Ahmad Saqr, Cairo 1389/1969, I, 119; Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, op. cit., p. 22; al-Zurqanl, op. cit., VII, 187-188; al-Zamakhsharl, al-Fd'iq, Ill, 61; Abu Bakr Ibn al- 'Arabi, al- 'Awii,im min al-qawiisim, ed. Muhibb al-Din al-Khattb (Judda, 1387), p. 188; al-Suyutl, al-Khasii'is al-kubrii, II, 417-418; Muhammad Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baqi, op. cit., III, 165-166, nos. 1548-1549; al-Qastallani, op, cit., X, 147-149; Ps. Ibn Sirin, op. cit., p. 292; al-Muttaqi aI-Hindi, op. cit., XII, 176-177, nos. 930-933 (the haditb no. 932 and Suyutt, Khasa'is, II, 418 combines the tradition of succession with the tradition about the 'Ajam embracing Islam, mentioned above p. 72, note 23), 183-184, nos. 972-973; Fahd, op. cit., p, 277. The succession of the three first Caliphs was foreseen in a dream of the Prophet. He saw in a dream Abu Bakr attached (nita bihi) to him; 'Urnar was attached to Abu Bakr. and 'Uthman to 'Umar (al-Hakim, op. cit., Ill, 71, 102; al-Suyirtt, al-Khasa'is al-kubrd, II 417). Abu Bakr saw himself in a dream clad in a yemeni garment and treading on human excrements; he had two moles on his chest. The Prophet interpreted it by saying that for two years he would rule as Caliph. (al-Muttaql al-Hindl, op. cit., XII, 162-163, no. 827. Ibn Sa'd' op. cit., Ill, 176-177; Ibn Hajar al-Haytaml, op. cit., p. 24). 'Auf b. Malik saw in a dream a man in a crowd taller than the rest of the people. He was told that the man was 'Umar. 'Urnar, he was told, surpasses them because he is not wary of being blamed while acting for God's sake, he will be an appointed Caliph by the predecessor and will die as martyr. 'Auf told Abu Bakr the dream, who summoned 'Umar and ordered 'Auf to relate him the dream. When he said "he will be an appointed Caliph" (by the predecessor), 'Umar silenced him and pulled him away roughly. When he became Caliph, he met 'Auf, admitted that one part of the dream has been fulfilled, expressed his wish to act fearlessly for God's sake, but wondered how he could gain the death of a martyr if he remains in the Arab peninsula (Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., III, 331; al-Muhibb al-Tabarl, alRiyii{l al-nadira, Cairo 1372/1953, I, 212). Abu Musa al-Ash'arl saw himself in a dream facing many highways, which, however, dwindled away. He went on the one which had been left and reached a mountain on which he saw the Prophet; on his side stood Abu Bakr. The Prophet pointed at 'Umar ordering him to draw near. Abu Musa understood that the dream foreboded the death of 'Urnar (Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., III, 332). 61 The succession 80 The interpretation of dreams 'Uthrnan saw the Prophet in a dream when he was besieged in his court. 'Uthman was fasting and the Prophet told him that he would break the fast in his company in the morning. In the morning, while still fasting, 'Uthman was indeed killed, (al-Hakim, op. cit., III, 94, 103; al-Suyutl, al-Khasii'is al-kubrii, II, 443-444; Muhammad b. Yahya b. Abi Bakr, alTamhid wa-I-bayiin, ed. Mahmud Yiisuf Zayid, Beirut, 1964, p. 175; al-Muhibb al-Tabart, al-Riyad, II, 161, 167-168; and see another version ibid., 167: 'Uthman, when besieged, saw in a dream the Prophet who asked him: "Have they besieged you, have they caused you intense thirst?" "Yes", said 'Uthman. The Prophet gave him a bucket with cold water and 'Uthrnan drank until he quenched his thirst. Then the Prophet said: "If you want I shall help you against them [i.e. against the besiegers] or if else you will break the fast with us." 'Uthrnan preferred to break the fast in the company of the Prophet [i.e. in Paradise] and was killed next day). The Prophet interpreted the fire seen by Zurara b. 'Amr al-Nakha't as indicating the fitna which will flame up after the Prophet's death. (See 'Ibara, fol. 47b ult. - 48a; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, III, 8; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Isti'iib, ed. 'Ali Muhammad al-Bijawl, Cairo, n.d., II, 517, no. 811; al-Zamakhsharl, op. cit., II, 182-183; al-Zurqanl, op. cit., VII, 193194; Fahd, op. cit., p. 286; and see 'Ibiira, fol. 51a, inf.). The neutrality of Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas was approved of in a dream. Husayn b. Kharija al-Ashja'I became perplexed when the fitna broke out (i.e. after the murder of 'Uthman). He asked God to grant him a sign how to act righteously. He saw in a dream this world and the next world and was guided by angels to a place where Ibrahim and the Prophet stayed. He heard the Prophet asking Ibrahim to beg God to pardon the sins of his people. Ibrahim said: "You know what your people invented (ahdathu; for the meaning of ahdatha see Goldziher, op. cit., II, 27-31) after your death; they spilled their blood and killed their imdm; why did they not act like my friend Sa'd?" Husayn b. Kharija went to Sa'd and related him his dream. Sa'd was pleased that Ibrahim had named him his friend. When asked which of the two factions he joined, Sa'd stated that he kept away from both parties. He advised Husayn to buy a flock and stay far away until the /itna came to an end (al-Dhahabi, Siyar a'Iiim al-nubalii', ed. Salai) al-Dln al-Munajjid, I, 81, al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, III, 501). The heated discussion about the position of 'Ali is reflected in a story about a muhadditn who appeared in a dream to his friend and told him about the privileged status of Muhammad b. 'Ubayd in Paradise, because he preferred 'Uthman to 'Ali (al-Khatlb al-Baghdadl, op. cit., II, 367). Muhammad b. 'Ubayd, when alive, used to warn his audience not to listen to the Kufians who scoffatthe people (ibid., the Kufians were known as the partisans of' Ali). The negative attitude towards the Umayyad rulers was reflected in a story according to which the Prophet saw the Umayyads in a dream jumping like apes on his minbar (al·SuyiltI, al-Khasii'is al-kubrii, II, 427-428; al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXI, 156). The attitude of the orthodoxy towards the conflict between 'Ali and Mu'awiya (comp.: idhd dhukira a$l;!tibifa-amsikii, al-Suyutl, Ta'rikh al-khulafd', p. 176; Ahmad b. l;Iajar alHaytaml, op. cit., p. 214) is mirrored in the story of the dream of 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz. He saw in a dream the Prophet in the company of Abii Bakr and 'Umar, 'Ali and Mu'awiya were brought in and entered a house the door of which was closed behind them. After a time 'Ali went out and stated that a verdict was given in his favour; then Mu'awiya went out and said that God forgave him his sins (Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Manam, p. 319). The personality of 'Umar b. 'Abd al- 'Aztz and his orthodox rule are emphasized in a story in which he tells of a dream which he dreamt. He saw the Prophet in the company of Abii Bakr and 'Umar, and the Prophet ordered him to follow the path of Abii Bakr and 'Urnar when he will be entrusted with government (Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., III, 291; al-Suyfitl, Ta'rikh al-khulafd', p. 230). 81 A cloud flowing with butter and honey, which a man saw in a dream, was interpreted by Abu Bakr as Islam (the cloud) and Qur'an (butter and honey).62 The esteem for scholars occupied with the study of the Qur'an is reflected in the story of a dream in which al-Kisa'I appeared and stated that God had forgiven his sins because he was dedicated to the study of the Qur'an.63 The preceding tradition belongs in fact to a particular kind of stories about the rewards in Paradise granted to the pious and godfearing for their good deeds. A fine specimen of a collection of this genre of stories is the Kitiib almaniim of Ibn Abl l-Dunya,64 a contemporary of Ibn Qutayba.v> Similar in content are some chapters on this subject in Ibn Abi Hatim's Taqdimat alma'rifa li-kitdbi l-jarlt wa-l-ta'dilv: Our 'Ibiira contains many stories of this kind. In some cases the tendency is to stress the specific virtues by which the pious gained Paradise, to guide the living and to admonish. Malik b. Dinar saw al-Hasan al-Basrl in a dream and asked him about his experiences in the other world. Al-Hasan told him that he was guided by God's grace to the abode of the righteous in reward for his sorrow and weeping in this world. He accordingly said: "The Ionger the man's saddness in this world the longer is his joy in the Iife to come."67 Ibn Qutayba remarks that this utterance is expressed in a manner which resembles al-Hasan's own style.68 Malik b. Dinar also saw Muslim b. Yasar69 in a dream. Muslim told him that he had been subjected after his death to dreadful experiences, but that later God had forgiven him his sins and accepted his good deeds. Malik sobbed and fainted. After a few days he died.7o 62 "Ibiira, fol, 36a; see the different versions of this story: Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., fols. 152b-153a; Muhammad Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baql, op. cit., III, 42-43, no. 1462; Ahmad b. Hanbal, op. cit., III, 357, no. 2113; Ps. Ibn Stnn, op. cit., p, 130; al-Hanafl, op. cit., II, 265; al-Qastallanl, op. cit., X, 160-161; al-Muhibb al-Tabart, al-RiyiirJ, I, 107; Abu Bakr Ibn al-'Arabl, op. cit., p. 189; cf. al-Khargushl, op. cit., fol. 120b. 63 'Ibiira, fol. 15a; al-Khatlb ai-BaghdadI, op. cit., XI, 410, 414. 64 Ms. al-Jazzar, Acre, majmii'a. 65 D. 280 H. F. Meier's statement "Die Welt der Urbilder bei 'Ali Hamadani", (Eranos Jahrbuch, 1950), p. 125, that the earliest collection of such stories is in the Risdla of alQushayrI must thus be altered. 66 Ibn AbI l;Iatim, Taqdimat al-ma'rifa (Hyderabad, 1371/1952), pp. 119-122, 311-312. 67 'Ibara, op, cit., fol. 12b; Ibn AbI l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 301; comp. a similar dream of Ibn Strln in al-Dhahabl's Ta'rikh al-Isliim (Cairo, 1367), IV, 198. 68 Ibid., ... atwalu l-ndsi huznan atwaluhum farahan ft I-iikhirati; qiila abu muhammadin: wa·hiidhii kamii tarii ashbahu bi-jayyidi kaldmi l-hasani. 69 See on him Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VII, 186. 70 'Ibdra, fol. l3a, ult. - I3b sup.; Ibn AbI l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 299, ll. 5-12; Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., II, 294 inf. 82 The interpretation of dreams Malik b. Dinar appeared after his death in a dream to Suhayl Akhu Hazm"! and informed him that he had come to the presence of God with many sins, but that God had forgiven him because of his confidence in God (I)usnu /zanni bi-lliihi).72 Sufyan al-Thaurl appeared in a dream to Abu Khalid al-Ahmar and informed him that he had found rest from the troubles of this world and came at the Mercy of God. According to another story Sufyan said that God had forgiven him his sins because of his talab al-hadithl» ~iilil,1 aI-Barrad saw in a dream Zurara b. Aura.74 Zurara told him that the best things by which to reach Paradise are trust in God and hope of Iittle duration.t> Another class of dreams contain predictions about the death of pious men and how they will enter Paradise. A pious woman in Mecca dreamt about maid-servants, dressed in yellow clothes and holding sweet basil in their hands, encircling the Ka'ba, She was shocked by what she saw and said to herself: "Such a thing around the Ka'ba?" She was told in her dream that 'Abd a1'Azlz b. Abl Rawwiid76 was getting married. That night, when she woke up, she was informed that he had died the same night. 77 A woman saw in her dream a beautiful garden in which there was placed a goiden throne. On this throne sat a man surrounded by servants with cups in their hands. She was told that the man was Marwiin al-Muhalliml, When 71 72 See on him Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, IV, 261, no. 449. 'Ibdra, fol. 13b; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, Majmu'at rasd'il (Cairo, 1354/1935), p. 41, no. 7 (Kitab husni l-zanni bi-lIiihl). 73 'Ibdra, fol. 14a; Ibn AbI Hatim, op. cit., p. 121; comp. Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 351: A man saw YazId b. Hartin after his death in a dream and asked him whether God forgave him his sins because he studied Qur'an, "No", said YazId, "because (my study of) hadith", And see al-Fasawl, Kit. al-ma'rifa wa-l-ta'rikh; Esad Ef. 2391, foJ. 190b inf.: 'Amr b. Murra hesitated whether to choose /:tadith or Qur'an, He saw in a dream a man granting gifts to the readers of Qur'an, not to the transmitters of hadith' and he decided to prefer Qur'an, See about talab al-hadith: Goldziher, Muslim Studies, II, 164 seq.; 'Abdallah b. al-Mubarak told his friend in a dream that God forgave him his sins because of talab al/:tadith (Majmu'at rasii'if Ii 'uliim al-hadith, ed. Subhl al-Badrl al-Samarra'I, al-MaclIna alMunawwara 1389/1969, p. 47). 74 See on him Waki', Akhbiir al-quddt, ed. 'Abd al-'AzIz MU$tafa al-Maraghl (Cairo, 1366/1947), I, 292-297; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VII, 150. 75 'Ibara, fol. l3a; Ibn AbI l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 298, cf. al-Tha'labl, Kitiib qatlii I· Qur'on, Ms. Leiden, Or. 9981 (majmu'a), fol. 9a-b. 76 See on him al-Sha'rant, al-Tabaqdt al-kubrii (Cairo, [n.d.]), p. 52; AbU Nu'aym, op, cit., VIII, 191. 77 'Ibdra, Col. lib; al-Yafi't, Mir'iit al-jindn (Hyderabad, 1338), I, 339 ult.-240 sup.; Ps. Ibn SIrIn, op. cit., p. 76. 83 she woke up in the morning, she was informed that the funeral of Marwan al-Muhalliml passed by her door at that time.78 Hafsa bint Rashid was moved by the death of her neighbour Marwan a1Muhallirnl. She then saw him in a dream and asked him what God's decision about him was. He told her that he had been introduced into Paradise, that he had then joined the "People of the Right" (a$l;iib ai-yamin) and been finally raised to "those near the Presence" (al-muqarrabin). When asked whom he had met in Paradise, he answered that he had seen there al-Hasan (al-Basrl), Maymiin b. Siyah,79 and Muhammad b. Sirin.80 The stories adduced above may give an idea about the dreams recorded by Ibn Qutayba concerning the pious in Paradise. Yet another group of dreams contain injunctions, warnings and forebodings. Isma'Il al-Hadrami became blind. In a dream he was taught a supplication and, having recited it, he regained his eyesight.s! Wahb b. Munabbih fell into destitution. One night he dreamt that a man brought him a thing resembling an almond or a pistachio nut. Having opened it, he found a piece of silk on which there was an inscription saying that it was not fitting for a man who knows the justice of God, or his affair by God's mercy, to consider the sustenance given by God as too slow. Later God gave him indeed plentiful sustenance.82 A pious man from Hamdan saw in a dream a piece of paper on which an injunction was written ordering him to practise submission and fear of God in order to reach the rank of the righteous.F' A secretary of al-Hasan b. Sahl84 resigned from his post and became a pious man. In his dream he saw a man who told him that his Lord called 78 "Ibiira, fo1. lOa-b; Ibn AbI l-Dunya, al-Maniim, p. 300, ll. 10-16; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 70; al-Khargiishl, op. cit., fo1. 62b. 79 See on him Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., III, 106; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VII, 152. 80 'Ibara, fo1. lOa; Ibn AbI l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 300, ll. 7-10; Ps. Ibn Strln, op. cit., pp. 69-70; al-KhargiishI, op. cit., fo1. 62b. 81 "Ibiira, fo1. IIa. Cf. Ibn l;IanbaI, Kit. al-'ilal, ed. T. Kacyigit and I. Cerrahoglu (Ankara, 1963), I, 68, no. 401: Simak became blind. He saw in his dream Abraham who stroked his eyes, ordered him to enter the Euphrates and to open his eyes in the river. He did it and regained his sight. 82 "Ibiira, fo1. 13a; al-Tantikhl, al-Faraj ba'da l-shidda (Cairo, 1357/1938), I, 168; comp, Ibn Nasir al-Dln al-Dimashql, Jiimi' al-iithiir fj maulidi l-mukhtiir, Ms. Cambridge Or. 913, fo1. 75a sup. (It was the Prophet who saw the inscription in his dream; the story is transmitted on the authority of Wahb. b. Munabbih). 83 "Ibdra, fo1. 12b. 84 See on him al-Jahshiyarl, al-Wuzarii' wa-l-kuttiib, ed. al-Saqa, al-Abyart, ShalabI (Cairo, 1357/1938),pp. 230-231. 84 The interpretation of dreams him. He understood the hint, made the necessary preparations and set out for a pilgrimage to Mecca. He died in fact on his journey.V 'Umar saw in a dream a cock which pecked him once or twice. He interpreted it that an alien (a Persian) would kill him.86 'A'isha bint Talha (and another man) saw Talha in a dream. He complained of dampness discomforting him in his grave and asked to be removed into another place. When his grave was opened, the people found it exactly as described by Talha. His body was found unchanged except for some of the hair in his beard.s? A woman saw her deceased daughter in a dream. The daughter ordered her mother to divide walnuts amongst the poor. Ibn Slrin interpreted the dream as follows: the woman should take out her hidden treasure and divide it among the poor. The woman admitted that she had buried this treasure at the time of a A woman told Ibn Sirln that she dreamt the moon was entering into the Pleiades; a herald from behind her ordered her to go to Ibn Slrln and to tell him the story. Ibn Sirin's interpretation was that he would die within seven days; he died in fact on the seventh day.89 A man saw in a dream a bird coming down from heaven, alighting on a shrub of jasmin and picking it, then flying back towards heaven. Ibn Slrln explained it as referring to the death of scholars. In fact a number of scholars died in that year, among them al-Hasan and Ibn Sirin.90 Layla bint Aufa al-Harashiyya, the wife of Furat al-Bakka'l, had a daughter who saw in her dream that she would break three banners. Her mother asked Ibn Slrln about it, and he interpreted the dream by saying that three of her husbands would be killed. In fact Yazid b. al-Muhallab, 'Amr b. Yazld a1Tayrni, and al- 'Abbas b. 'Abdallah b. al-Harith b. Naufal b. al-Harith b. 'Abd 85 'Ibara, foJ. 14a. 86 'Ibdra, fol. 19a; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., III, 335-336; al-Hakim, op. cit., Ill, 90; Ibn alJauzi, Ta'rikh 'Umar, ed. Hasan al-Hadl Husayn (Cairo, [n.d.]), p. 166; al-Muhibb al- Tabart, op. cit. (Cairo, 1372/1953), II, 99; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 201; al-Majlisl, op. cit., LXI, 231; Fahd, op. cit., 291; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., III, 355; Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Tamlml, op. cit., fols. 5b, 8a, lOb, 12b. 87 "Ibdra, fol. lib; 'Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, Ms. Murad Molla 604, fol. 60b; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p, 332; Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr, op. cit., 11, 768-769; al-Muhibb al-TabarI, op. cit., II, 348 (quoted on the authority of Ibn Qutayba); Fahd, op. cit., p. 290; Cf. Ibn Abl Shayba, al-Musannaf, ed. 'Abd al-Khaliq al-Afghanl (Hyderabad, 1388/1968), III, 389. 88 "Ibiira, fol. 18b; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 274. 89 "Ibdra, fol. 18b; al-Safadt, al-Wafi bi-l-wafayiit, ed. Sven Dedering (Damascus, 1953), m, 146, no. 1095; al-Dhahabt, Ta'rikh al-isliim, IV, 196; Abu Nu'ayrn, op, cit., II, 277; al-Ibshlht, op. cit., II, 79; Ps, Ibn Sirin, op. cit., p, 221; Cf. Ibn Hanbal, 'Ilal, I, 6, no. 17: Sa'Id b. Jubayr was told in his dream that al-I:Iajjaj would kill him. 90 'Ibara, fol. 20b; Ibn Kathlr, al-Biddya wa-l-nihiiya (Beirut-Riyad, 1966), IX, 275. 85 al-Muttalib were killed. Al-Hasan b. 'Uthman b. 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Auf succeeded to divorce her when he heard about the story of her dream and saved his Iife.91 'A:isha saw in a dream three moons falling in her bossom. Her father, Abu Bakr, interpreted it by saying that three men, the best people in the world, would be buried in her home.92 Of special interest are sections of the manuscript reporting about dreams in which verses unknown to the dreamer were recited. These verses, underlining the true Arabic-Islamic character of these sections, serve in some cases as predictions, in others for recording some gharib versions, or for purposes of admonition. It may be of some interest to gain more insight93 into the dreams of Ibn Qutayba himself, he being a man of outstanding knowledge in Arabic literature, language and religious lore. Ibn Qutayba reportss- that he saw in his youth a dream in which there were many books containing many gharib expressions. He remembered some of them, but Iater forgot them except the expression wa-balaghat ilayhi sallatu l-hawii'i. At that time he did not know the meaning of salla; afterwards he Iearnt that it meant dryness.Pf Ibn Qutayba describes another dream which he dreamt as "a marvel" (u'}ilba). A man asked him one day about the word junahiyy, which he did not know. In a dream a person explained to him the word as a synonym of khayzuriin (bamboo). After a while Ibn Qutayba heard a man reciting: fi kaffihi junahiyyun rihuhu 'abiqun min kaffi arwa'a fi 'irninihi shamamu idhii ra'athu qurayshun qiila qii'i!uhii ilii makiirimi hiidhii yantahi l-karamu96 Ibn Qutayba knew before that this verse in the version: Ii kaffihi khayzuriinun; when he heard it in the new version he understood that the explanation in the dream was right.?? 91 "Ibdra, fol, 21a; see Ibn Habfb, al-Mubabbar, .ed. lIse Lichtenstaedter (Hyderabad, 1361/1942),p. 443; Ps. Ibn SirIn, op. cit., p. 152; cr. al-Khargtishl, op. cit., fol. 142b, penult. 92 'Ibiira, fol, 29a; al-Raghib al-I$rahanI, op. cit., I, 150; al-Suyutt, Ta'rlkh al-khulafii'; p. 105; ai-HaythamI, op. cit., VII, 185; Ps. Ibn SIrIn, op. cit., p. 220; al-Ibshtbt, op. cit., II, 79; al-Muttaql l-Hindl, op. cit., XII, 176, no. 927; Al-Mandsik, ed.. Hamad al-Jasir (alRiyac;l,1389/1969),p. 374. 93 See Ibn Qutayba's dream in connection with a badtth, above, note 55. 94 'Ibiira, fol. 16b. 9S See VA, s.v, ~ II. 96 'Ibiira, fol, 16b; cr. Mus'ab b. 'Abdallah al-ZubayrI, op. cit., p. 164; Rijiil al-Kashshl, ed. Ahmad al-Husaynl (Karbala', [n.d.l), p. 119; Sadr al-Dln 'AU Khan al-Shirazi al-Madanl, al-Darajdt al-rafi'a (al-Najaf, 1382/1962), p. 549. 97 See VA, s.v.j n h. 86 The interpretation of dreams A man from Ghassan dreamt that he saw on the wall of Damascus a person who recited verses predicting the death of 'Amr b. Sa'Id who "considered the fortress as a place of rescue from death, sought refuge in the fortress, but the fate of death visited him in the fortress." The Ghassanl recounted the dream to 'Abd aI-Malik who asked him to keep the dream in secret. After some time the dream was fulfilled: 'Abd aI-Malik killed 'Amr b. Sa'id (al-Ashdaq) in the fortress of Damascus.sf At the time of 'Uthman a man saw in a dream a person reciting verses predicting the death of 'Uthman, A short time afterwards 'Uthrnan was killed.99 A man saw in a dream 'Ali b. Hisham. He played a Iute and sang: By my life, if Khurasan causes me to forfeit my head so I was indeed far from the gates of Khurasan, After some time al-Ma'mun sent aI-'Ujayf and ordered to kill 'Ali b. Hishiim.IOO Ascetic poetry is represented in verses recited by girls in Paradise (buris) whom a man saw in his dream: God of men, the Lord of Muhammad, created us for people standing on their feet sleepless (praying - K) Whispering to their God, the Lord of all Being the worries of this people, circulate during the night, while (other) men! Of the same character are the verses recited in a dream to Rabi'a al'Adawiyya, when she was ill: Your prayer, when people sleep, is Iight 98 'Ibdra, fol. 15b; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, Mandm, p. 347; Ibn Kathtr, al-Biddya, VIII, 311 (all the sources recording the verses: alii yii la-qaumi li-l-safdhatl wa-l-wahni wa-li-l- 'iijizi l-mauhiini wa-l-ra'yi dhi l-afni. wa-li-bni sa'Idin baynamd huwa qa'imun 'alii qadamayhi kharra Ii-l-wajhi wa-l-batni. ra' ii l-hisna manjdtan fa-ltajd ilayhi fa-ziirathu l-maniyyatu fi l-I;!i~ni.) and see the story of his killing al-Tabarl, Ta'rikh (Cairo, 1358/1939), IV, 598-600. See ibid., p. 598: 'Amr b. Sa'Id saw in a dream 'Uthman on the night before he was murdered; 'Uthman dressed him in his gown. 99 'Ibdra , fol. 15b; Ibn Abl l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 347: la-' amru abika fa-Iii ta'jalan laqad dhahaba l-khayru tua qalilii wa-qad safiha l-ndsu fi dinihim wa-khallii bnu 'affiina sharran tawtld. 100 'Ibara, fol. 20b; see the story of his execution al-Tabart, Ta'rikh, VII, 192-193. 101 'Ibdra, fol. 15b, inf. - 16a sup. 87 your sleep is diverse, opposed to prayer. Your life is a plunder and a respite it goes on and passes away steadily and ceases. 102 Different in content is a story about a couple who promised each othe r to refrain from marriage in case one of them should die. The husband was the first to die. The widow kept her promise, but was persuaded by some wo men to remarry. On the night of her second marriage she saw in a dream her first husband who said: "How quickly did you forget the obligation, 0 Rab fib!" He recited the following verses: I greeted the dwellers of this house, all of them except Rabab, for I am not greeting her. She became married, while my abode became a grave, indeed graves hide people who dwell in them. 103 Besides the prognostic interpretations of dreams, a great number of interpretations are concerned with unknown facts of the past or the present, mainly details of private Iife, which would never have come to the person's knowledge without the help of the oneirocritic. A man dreamt that he drank from a bottle with two heads, one sweet and one salty. Ibn Sirln said in his interpretation that he sought the favours of his wife's sister and bade him desist. The man admitted that the interpretation was a true one. 104 A man saw in a dream that he drank from a bottle with a narrow neck. Ibn Sirln interpreted it by saying that the man was enticing a girl. 105 A man dreamt a dream that he owned an ostrich that was grinding. Ibn Slrin said that it denoted that the man bought a slave-girl and hid her amongst the tribe of Banu l;Ianifa.106 A man dreamt a dream that his hand was cut off. Ibn Slrln interpreted it that he was a carpenter and changed his occupation.w? A man dreamt a dream that a pebble fell into his ear and he shook it off. Ibn Sirln interpreted it by saying that the man was associated to people of unorthodox innovations and heard vicious words, which his ear shook Off.l08 'Ibtira, fol. 16a; al-Sarraj, Masiiri' al- 'ushshiiq, Cairo, 1325/1907,pp. 146-147. 'Ibara, fol. 15a-b; Ibn AbI l-Dunya, al-Mandm, p. 344; Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyya, Akhbar al-nisii', ed. Niziir Rida, Beirut 1964, pp. 127-128. 104 'Ibara, fol. 17a; Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., II, 276-277; al-Khargilshl, op. cit., fol. 125b. 105 'Ibara, fol. 17b. 106 'Ibiira, fol. 17b; and see the version of al-Jahiz, al-Hayawiin, IV, 368-369 (Parts of the Banu Hanifa were peasants [they supplied Mecca with their agricultural products]. See EJ2, s.v. Hanlfa b. Ludjaym. And see Ahmad b. Hanbal, op. cit., XIII, 92, no. 7355; Ibn 'Asakir, op. cit., VI, 170). 107 'Ibara, fol. 18b; Ps. Ibn Strln, op. cit., p. 115; al-Khargushl, op. cit., fol. l06b. 108 'Ibiira, fol. 20a. 102 103 88 The interpretation of dreams A man saw in a dream Qatada swallowing small pearls and spitting them out Iarger than those which he swallowed. Qatada, according to Ibn Sirln's interpretation, transmitted more haditli than he heard,I09 A similar symbolism underlies Abu Bakr's interpretation of a dream, in which a man saw a big bull who came out from a small hole and could not enter it when he tried to return. Abu Bakr interpreted it as a grievous expression which cannot be taken back. I 10 A man heard in a dream a child shouting in his house. Ibn Sirln ordered him to stop playing on the guitar; it was in fact a singer. I II Drinking from a vessel symbolizes, as we have seen above, 112sexual intercourse. The same interpretation is applied by Ibn Sirln in the following dream: a man saw in a dream a woman from his family lifting to her mouth a vessel of milk, but, outspeeded by a pressure to urinate, she had to put down the vessel at every attempt to drink. The woman, according to Ibn Slrln, was a righteous woman who longed for a man. Ibn Sirln advised to find for her a husband.l13 A similar subject is dealt with in another story: Khalid b. Yazld (or Yazld) dreamt that he put three times a knife on the neck of a {i!awd-bird trying unsuccessfully to slaughter it; 114he managed to slaughter it only on the fourth time. An interpreter of dreams was summoned and explained that it refers to a virgin girl whom the dreamer failed to deflower three times, but succeeded on the fourth time. The interpreter added that the girl broke wind during the intercourse, which he deduced from the name of the bird "titawd", Khalid admitted the facts.115 Sagacity was shown by Ibn Slrln in the interpretation of the following dream: A man saw in a dream that Yazid b. al-Muhallab put up an arch between his house and that of the dreamer. Ibn Sirin asked the man: "Did your mother cohabit with Ibn al-Muhallab?" The man asked his mother and she admitted that she had been a slave-girl of Ibn al-Muhallab (scil. his concubine - K), later marrying the dreamer's father. I 16 109 'Ibdra, fol. 20b. Cf. al-Safadl, al- Wiifi bi-l-wafaydt, ed. S. Dedering (Damascus, 1953), p. 146. 110 'Ibiira, fol. 20a; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 183; al-Kharglishl, op. cit., fol. 168a. 111 'Ibiira, fol. 20b; Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., II, 277; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 75. 112 See above notes 104, 105. 113 'Ibiira, fol. 21a; Ps. Ibn Sirln, op, cit., p. 105. 114 See slaughter as symbol of sexual intercourse in the story recorded by al-Ibshtht, op. cit., II, 79 (a man saw in a dream a woman, who was his neighbour, slaughtered ... ); and see 'Ibiira, fol. 54a, 1. 10: wa-man dhabaha zabyan iftadda jdriyatan ... ; and see ibid, fol. 57b,1. 9: ... wa-man dhabaha dajdjatan iftadda jdriyatan 'adhrd'a. 115 'Ibdra, fol. 21b; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 12;al-Damiri, op. cit., II, 102; Abdel Daim, op. cit., p. 85. 116 'Ibdra, fol. 21a; Ps. Ibn Strln, op. cit., p. 253. 89 A significant dream of Abu 'Amr al-Nakha'I reflects the feeling of the victory of the Arabs over the Persians in the early period of Islam and their sense of self-identification with the past. Abu 'Amr saw al-Nu'rnan b. alMundhir, the king of al-Hlra, in a dream, wearing two earrings and bracelets. When he informed the Prophet about his dream, the Prophet said: "This indicates that the kingdom of the Arabs returned to its splendour and beauty." 117 The "Arab-character" of an object helps Sa'Id b. a1-Musayyab to give an interpretation of a dream. A man saw in a dream on the battlements of the mosque a beautiful white pigeon, which was snatched away by a falcon. Ibn al-Musayyab interpreted it by saying that al-Hajjaj married the daughter of 'Abdallah b. Ja'far, His explanation as to how he reached his conclusion is as follows: the pigeon denotes a woman, the whiteness denotes her pure pedigree; the falcon is an Arab bird, not an alien one (laysa min tayri l-a'iijim); among the Arabs he did not find anyone more closely resembling a falcon than aI-I;Iajjaj.118 The Islamic character of Ibn Qutayba's compilation is underlined by the frequent quotations from Qur'an and hadith, which serve as the basis for the interpretations. Abundance of mushrooms denote sustenance and wealth without fatigue, according to the utterance of the Prophet that mushrooms stem from 111anna.119 The mouse denotes a profligate woman, because the Prophet called the mouse "al-fuwaysiqa" (the small profligate).120 According to this utterance, Ibn Sirin interpreted a dream in which a man saw himself having sexual intercourse with a mouse which gave birth to a date. Ibn Sirln asked the man whether he had at home a profligate wife. "Yes", the man answered. Further he asked: "Is she pregnant?" "Yes", the man answered. Ibn Sirtn predicted that she would give birth to a righteous boy. He based his prognostic on the utterance of the Prophet about the mouse and his favourable saying about dates.U! 117 'Ibiira, fol. 45b; Ibn Hajar, al-Isdba, III, 8, no. 2789; al-Zurqant, op. cit., VII, 194; Fahd, op. cit., p. 286, note I. 118 'Ibiira, fol. 57a; al-Raghib al-Isfahanl, op. cit., I, 150; al-Damlrt, op. cit., II, 181; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 196; Fahd, op. cit., p. 311, no. 6. 119 'Ibara, fol. 39b; al-Damlrl, op. cit., II, 345-346; Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyya, Zad alma'iid (Beirut, [n.d.]), III, 181, 183; al-Hanaft, op. cit., II, 366; Ibn al-Athlr, al-Nihiiya, IV, 199; al-'Azizi, op. cit., III, 109; Ibn al-Athir, Jiimi' al-usid, VIII, 327, nos. 5636-5637. 120 'Ibara, fol. 5b ult.; al-Damlrl, op. cit., II, 201 inf.; Ps. Ibn SirIn, op. cit., p. 209; Ibn al-Athlr, Jdmi' al-usid, XII, 367, no. 9449; about black and white mice denoting days and nights see 'Ibara, fol. 8a; al-Darnlrl, op. cit., 11,202; Ps. Ibn SIrIn, p. 209. 121 'Ibara, fol. 19a; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 209; cf. Ibn Kathlr, al-Bidiiya, IX, 275. 90 The interpretation of dreams The raven symbolizes, according to a hadith, a profligate man.l22 Bottles denote women, according to the utterance of the Prophet to Anjasha.123 A Iong right hand in a dream is to be interpreted as a generous helping person, as the Prophet said, addressing his wives: "The first of you who will join me (i.e. to die after me - K) will be the one with the Iongest hand." The first who died after the Prophet was Zaynab bint Jal)sh.124 A rib seen in a dream denotes a woman according to the recommendation of the Prophet to treat woman gently because woman was created from a crooked rib and cannot be set aright. 125 The Iiver denotes a treasure according to the saying of the Prophet about the troops of Mecca: hddhihi makkatu qad ramatkum bi-aflddhi akbiidihii.126 Watering a garden and seeds denotes sexual intercourse, according to the prohibition of the Prophet to water the seeds of another man (referring to sexual intercourse with pregnant women). 127 Many interpretations of dreams arc based on verses of the Qur'an, on expressions of the Qur'an or meanings attached to them. Eggs denote women according to Sura xxxvii 49, in which the women in Paradise are compared to hidden eggs. 128 Timber denotes hipocrisy according to Sura Ixiii 4: "... but when they speak thou listenest to their speech, and it is as if they were propped up timbers." 129 Stones in a dream symbolize hardness according to Sura ii 74.130 Water denotes sometimes trial and allurement (fitna) according to Sura Ixxii 16.131 A king entering a locality not suiting his rank and honour (because of its smallness) denotes that the locality will be afflicted by humiliation or calamity, op. cit., II, 180; al-Majlisl, LXI, 173. Hajar, al- "Isdba, I, 68, no. 259; al-Bukharl, al-Adab al-mufrad, ed. Muhibb al-Dln al-Khatib (Cairo, 1379), p. 305, no. 883; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., I, 140; al-Jurjanl, al-Muntakhab min kindyiit al-udaba', ed. Muhammad Badr al-Dln al-Na'sanl (Cairo, 1326/1908), p. 7; al-Tha'iilibi, al-Kindyiit, ed. al-Na'sant (Cairo, 1326/1908), p. 4. 124 'Ibara, fol. 7a; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., IV, 1850, no. 3355; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VIII, 108; al-Haytharnt, op. cit., IX, 248; al-Hanafl, op. cit., II, 250; Ibn Kathlr, Shamd'il, p, 389; Ibn al-Athlr, Jiimi' al-usid, XII, 66, no. 8850; al-Suylitl, al-Khasii'is al-kubrii, II, 462. 125 'Ibiira, fols. 6a, 31a inf.; al-Sulami, Adab al-suhba, Jerusalem 1954, p. 82, note 245; al-Majlisl, op. cit., LXI, 173. 126 'Ibiira, fol, 31a; al-Sharlf al-Radiyy, op. cit., p. 22, no. 1 (and see ib., p. 226, no. 231) 127 'Ibiira, fol, 37b. 128 'Ibiira, fol. 5a. 129 'Ibiira, fol. 5a; and see al-Qurtubl, Tafsir, XVIII, 125; al-Sharlf al-Radiyy, op. cit., p. 293, no. 320. 130 'Ibiira, fol, 5a. 131 'Ibdra, fol, 5a. 123 'Ibiira, fol. 6a; Ibn 122 'Ibiira, fols. 5b, 24a; al-Damirl, 91 according to Sura xxvii 34: "Kings when they enter a city disorder it and make the mighty ones of its inhabitants abased."132 Dress denotes women according to Sura ii 187: "Permitted to you upon the night of the fast is to go to your wives; they are a vestment to you and you are a vestment for them." 133 A wood-carrier denotes a slanderer, according to Sura cxi 5: " ... and his wife, the carrier of the firewood" (i.e. the sianderous woman - K).134 The rope denotes a pact according to Sura iii 103, 113: "And hold you fast to God's bond together. .. "; "Abasement shall be pitched on them wherever they are come upon except they be in a bond of God and a bond of the people." 135 Scattered pearls denote servants according to Sura Iii 24: " ... and there go round them youths, their own, as if they were hidden pearls." 136 Fresh dates (rutab) denote good and pleasant sustenance, according to Sura xix 24: "Shake also to thee the palm-trunk, and there shall come tumbling upon thee dates fresh and ripe."137 Drunkenness in a dream, without drinking intoxicants, denotes fear, according to Sura xxii 2: " ... and thou shalt see mankind drunk, yet they are not drunk, but God's chastisement is terrible." 138 Washing with cold water symbolizes repentance, recovering from disease, being freed from prison, paying a debt, or being freed from fear, according to Sura xxxviii 42: "This is a laving-place, cool and a drink." 139 Rain in a restricted place (a house or Iocality) denotes pains and calamities, according to Sura xi 82: " ... and rained on it stones and baked clay." 140 The tongue symbolizes a (convincing) argument or fame, according to Sura xxvi 84: " ... and appoint me a tongue of truthfulness among the others."141 Praying with the back to the Ka'ba symbolizes renouncing Islam, according to Sura iii 187: " ... but they rejected it behind their backs." 142Praying above the Ka'ba also denotes renouncing IsIam, according to Sura ii, 144, 150: "From whatsoever place thou issuest, turn thy face towards the Holy Mosque ... "; the man praying above the Ka'ba has no qibla.w) Eating fruits in Paradise (or getting women there) predicts welfare in this world and improvement of belief, knowledge and piety, according to Sura xv 46: "Enter you there in peace and security." 144 132 134 136 138 140 142 143 144 fol. fol. fol. fol. fol. fol. 'Ibara, fol. 'Ibdra, fol. "Ibiira, "Ibdra, "Ibdra, "Ibdra, "Ibdra, "Ibdra, 5b. 133 "Ibdra, fol. 5b. 135 'Ibiira, fol. 5b. 6b. 45b. 137 'Ibdra, fol. 40b. 38a. 139 'Ibdra, fol. 36b. 36a. 141 'Ibara, fol. 30a, 27a. 27a; Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 56, ll. 14-16. 26a. 92 The interpretation of dreams Manacles (aghliil) constitute a bad omen, according to Sura v 67: " ... their hands are fettered and they are accursed for saying so ... " and Sura xxxvi 8: "Surely We have put on their necks fetters." 145Another interpretation stresses the difference between manacles and shackles (qayd): manacles denote unbelief, but shackles denote firm belief. 146 'Umar withdrew the nomination of his governor to Syria when the latter told him his dream. He saw the sun and the moon fighting each other; some of the stars aided the sun, some of them the moon. "With which of them were you?" asked 'Umar. "With the moon", answered the man. 'Umar withdrew his appointment, basing his decision on Sura xvii 12: " ... then We have blotted out the sign of the night." 147 Two different interpretations of an identical dream, both based on the Qur'an, were issued by Ibn Sirin. Two different persons dreamt that they were calling to prayer as mu'adhdhins. Ibn Slrln predicted to the first one that he would perform the hajj; to the other he foretold that his hand would be cut off (as punishment for theft). When asked about this opposite interpretation of the same dream, he said: "In the first person I noticed marks of good countenance and based my interpretation on Sura xxii 27: "And proclaim unto mankind the pilgrimage." I was not pleased with the countenance of the other man and I interpreted according to Sura xii 70: " ... then a herald proclaimed: Ho, cameleers, you are robbers."148 A considerable number of verses enhance, the Arabic character of the compilation. It is indeed not surprising to find so many verses in a book by Ibn Qutayba, given his profound knowledge of Arabic poetry. In a Iengthy passage, in which he discusses the meanings of spirit (ruM and soul (nafs) and the differences between them, Ibn Qutayba quotes a verse of Dhu l-Rumma, who said at the point of his death: fol. 8b (but if a pious man sees manacles in a dream it is a good omen). fol. 47a, inf. - 47b sup.; see Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol. 152a inf.; alTibrlzi, op. cit., p. 394; al-Suyutt, al-Durr, III, 312. Of interest is the interpretation of the following dream: A man saw in a dream that his son tied him with a black rope and then started to slaughter him. Ibn Sirin interpreted the dream by saying that the son is pious in his attitude towards his father and that he would pay a debt owed by his father (,lbiira, fol. 31b inf.; and see a more detailed report of this story Ibn Abt l-Dunya, al-Ishriif fi mandzil al-ashriif, Ms. Chester Beatty 4427, fol. 32a). 147 'Ibdra, fol. 17a; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, I, 285, no. 1353; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., I, 279, no. 378; aI-Ibshihi, op. cit., II, 79; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Ishriif, fol. 49a; Ps. Ibn Slrin, op. cit., p. 291; al-Muttaql l-Hindl, op. cit., XI, 340, no. 1341; Muhammad b. AI,unad alTamIml, op. cit., fol. 35a. 148 'Ibara, fol. 9a; Bland, op. cit., p. 133; Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Tamlml, op. cit., fol. 22a; al-Khargushi, op. cit., fol. 36a. 145 'Ibiira, 146 'Ibiira, 93 0, He Who takes my spirit from my soul at the point of death and He Who forgives the sins, remove me from fire (of Hell). 149 and an anonymous verse: I remain the whole day maddened by love, and there meet at night in dream my spirit and her spirit. 150 The interpretation of the quince (safarjat) and the iris (susan) are derived from the components of these words (su-san = su' sana; safarjal = safar-jat) and illustrated by the following anonymous verses: She sent him as gift a quince and he drew a bad omen and remained the whole day contemplating. He was afraid of departure, as the first of it is journey (safar); right be was in that he drew a bad omen. and about the iris: You gave me an iris and you did not do well in (choosing your) gifts, The first of it is evil and its end, is evil of a (barren) year. 151 A surveyer (of Iand) is interpreted as a traveller; this is expounded by two anonymous verses: May God render the people of Barmak ugly, for I became associate in their journeys because of them. If Dhu l-Qarnayn did survey the Earth then I am indeed a keeper of the dust. 152 Two verses of Khidash b. Zuhayr are quoted attesting that the word dajjdla denotes a caravan; an anonymous verse conveys that the word denotes camels smeared with tar. 153 The verb ramo, to throw arrows, denoting also calumniation, siander (for 149 'Ibdra, fol. 3b, I. 1; Diwdn, ed. C. H. H. Macartney (Cambridge, 1919), p. 667 (no. 47); L'A, s.v. z b b; the variants pertinent to the discussed problem may be mentioned: yii qiibit!a I-rubi min nafst idhd bturfirat wa-ghiifira l-dhanbi zahzihn! min al-nari. Diwdn: yii mukhrija I-rubi min jismi idhii btarfarat wa-fdrija I-karbi ... L'A: yii qiibirfa I-rubi 'an jismin 'a~ii zamanan wa-ghdfira l-dhanbi ... 150 'Ibara, fol. 3b, I. 10. See this verse in the Diwdn of Jamil Buthayna, ed, Bashir Yamiit 'Ibdra: (Beirut, 1352/1934),p. 18. 151 "Ibdra, fol. 5a; Ps. Ibn Sirln, op. cit., p. 311, 9; Bland, op. cit., p, 135; al-Khargilshl, op. cit., fol. 217b. 152 "Ibiira, fol. 6b; Ibn al-Faqlh, al-Buldiin, ed. de Goeje (Leiden, 1885), p. 52 ("muwak· kalun bi-I· 'iyiiri", not "bi-l-ghubdri"}, 153 "Ibdra, fols. 6b-7a. 94 The interpretation of dreams its interpretation of dreams in the Iatter connotation) is attested by Sura xxiv 4, 6, and two verses of Labid.154 The symbol of a falcon ($aqr) as a courageous man is attested by a verse of Abu Ta1ib: The courageous men (falcons) came one after the other, as if everyone of them clad in over-long mail (were a warrior) walking heavily.!S5 Honour is symbolized in dreams by the sky. This is attested by a verse of al-Nabigha al-Ja'di, recited during his meeting with the Prophet: Our glory and our greatness reached the sky and we hope to gain an elevated place above that.! S6 The sun symbolizes in dreams the power of the king. A verse of al-Nabigha al-Dhubyani is quoted: So you are the sun and the kings are the stars when it appears, no star from among the stars appears.t>? Stars denote the noblemen from among the people. An anonymous verse testifies it: Whomever you will meet from amongst them you will say: "I me-t their chief" they are like the stars by which the travellers travel.!58 A rib symbolizes, as already mentioned, a woman. A verse of an anonymous poet attests it: She is a hooked rib, you will not set her aright Io, setting aright the ribs means breaking them.!59 Lice in dreams symbolize the welfare of the family. A verse about it is quoted: Up to the time when your clans grew full of Iice (i.e. grew large - K) and you saw that your sons grew up ... !60 154 "Ibdra, fol. 7a; see the verses Diwdn, ed. Ihsan 'Abbas (al-Kuwayt, 1962), pp. 194195 (nos. 72, 74); and see these verses analysed by Ibn Qutayba in his Kit. al-ma'iini l-kabir (Hyderabad, 1368/1949), pp. 818, 1046-1047. 155 'Ibara, fol. 7b, I. 8; Ibn Hisharn, al-Sira al-nabawiyya, ed. al-Saqa, al-Abyarl, Shalabi (Cairo, 1355/1936), II, 18, 1. 8 ('Ibiira: tatiiba'a JiM; Sira: a'tina 'alayhdy; cf. Mus'ab b. 'Abdallah al-Zubayrl, op. cit., p. 431. 156 'Ibiira, fol. 26a; Maria Nallino, Le Poesie di an-Nabiga al-Ga'di (Roma, 1953), pp. 60 (v. 66, and see the references of the editor), 70 (v. 22); Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Tabiitaba al-IAlawi, 'Iydr al-shi'r, ed. Tahiial-l;IajirlandMubamrnadZaghIUlSalfun(Cairo, 1956),p. 45. 157 'Ibiira, fo1. 28b, 1. 10; al-'Askart, Dtwdn al-ma'iini (Cairo, 1352), I, 16; Dtwdn alNiibigha, p. 17, I. 4. 158 "Ibiira, fo1. 28b, 1. 13; al-'Askart, op. cit., I, 23 ult., 41; al-Jurjani, op. cit., p. 99 ult. 159 'Ibiira, fol. 31a ult., al-Mu'afa b. Zakariyya, al-Jalis al-$alib al-kiift, Ms. Topkapi Saray. Ahmet III, no. 2321, fol. 103a; Ibn Abl l-Hadld, Sharh nahj al-baldgha, ed. Muhammad Abu I-FaQI Ibrahim (Cairo, 1964), XVIII, 199. 160 "Ibdra, fol. 32a (in text: qabilat; correct reading: qamilat); L'A, s.v. q m I. 95 A hand-mill in a dream symbolizes war. An anonymous verse and a verse of Zuhayr b. abl Su1ma161 are quoted. 162 A cloth-tent in a dream symbolizes royal power. This is based on the verse of al-A'sha (about the killing of al-Nu'rnan b. al-Mundhir): He introduced al-Nu'rnan into a house the roof of which were the chests of the elephants after (he dwelt in) the cloth tent. 163 and on an anonymous verse: o Hakam b. al-Mundhir b. Jarud the cloth-tent of glory is pitched upon you.164 There is an oneirocritical utterance which says: "He whose affairs have been accomplished in a dream and who, in a dream, has got hold of this world, has to expect decline and change of state, because everything accomplished is about to decay. This is supported by the following verse: If a thing is accomplished, its decrease is near expect decline if people say: "it is accomplished". 165 A tent denotes sometimes a woman. The explanation for this interpretation is based on an expression in Arabic: "he pitched a tent upon his wife." The origin of this expression, records Ibn Qutayba, is a custom according to which people used to pitch a tent upon the man who married and slept with his wife; consequently a man sleeping with his wife on the night of his marriage was called "the pitcher of the tent". This is illustrated by a verse of 'Amr b. Ma'dtkarib: Have'nt you remained sleepless watching this yemeni lightening it looks as if it were a candle of a pitcher of a tent. 166 Wearing silk brocade not in the usual way forebodes that the dreamer will be whipped or afflicted by small-pox. Two verses of a man afflicted by smallpox expound this meaning: Hasn't she got the tidings that I clothed myself after her (i.e. after my departure from her) with a white stripped cloth, the dyer of which is not foolish. I was bare of it before I wore it and my wearing it was for me bitter and hard. 167 161 162 163 164 Diwdn, 'Ibdra, '[bora, 'Ibara, ed. fo1. fo1. fo1. 'Urnar al-Suwaydi (Leiden, 1306/1889), p, 85. 37b. 40b, I. 6; Diwiin, ed. R. Geyer (London, 1928), p. 251 (no. 169). 40b, 1. 8. 165 "Ibiira, fol. 62a inf. 62b sup.; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, Kit. dhamm l-dunyii, Ms. Zahiriyya, Damascus, fo1. 22a, no. 187 (The edition of the manuscript is being prepared by Mrs. E. Almagor); Al-Raghib al-Isfahanl, MuMc/arat al-udaba', IV, 388. 166 'Ibdra, fo1. 40b ult.; L'A, S.v. b n y (the second hemistich); al-Jurjani, op. cit., p. 16. 167 "Ibara, fol, 41b, penult.; the first verse is recorded in the Diwdn of Dhu l-Rurnma, p, 670, I. 4 (quoted from Aghtini, XVI, 122); Ibn Qutayba, al-Ma'iini l-kabir, I, 486 (only 96 The interpretation of dreams According to the hadith: "the man fearing God is bridled", it seems to be a good omen to see oneself bridled in a dream. A verse is quoted in connection with this interpretation: Free from vices is only he who controlled his mouth with a bridle.168 The milk of hare denotes paucity, subsequently it symbolizes paucity of means of sustenance. This is attested by an anonymous verse: Your evil is present and your welfare is (small like) the milk of a hare after her first Girding a sword in a dream denotes being appointed as governor; what happens in a dream to the sword or to the sword-belt (I:zama'i!) will happen to the man in his post as governor. The sword-belt takes the position of a cloak; the Arabs called it therefore "the cloak". A verse attesting this is quoted: And in many a calamity brought about by a culprit you turned your cloak into a muffler. Ibn Qutayba adds: you turned your sword in it into a muffler, i.e. you beat with it (i.e. with your sword) their heads.t"? The mare symbolizes a noble woman. This is illustrated by a verse of the wife of Raul). b. Zinba", in which she scoffs at her husband: Am I not merely an Arab filly born from (noble) horses, mounted by a mule.!"! A horse with a blazon on his forehead, or white in the lower parts of his legs (mul:zajjal) denotes in a dream a noble man; a verse of al-Nabigha aIJa'di attests it: Greet you both Layla and say to her: "be calm" as she set out for fame and an eminent deed. 172 These verses current in the circles of philologists and lexicographers, some of them recorded by the udabd' and transmitters of akhbiir, became thus a means of interpreting dreams. the first verse; anonymous); for the expression amarru wa-a'Iaqu see al-A'sha, Diwiin, p. 148, I. 1 (XXXIII, 31). 168 "Ibiira, fol. 62b, penult.; see Abii Nuwas, Diwdn, ed. Mahmud Kamil (Cairo, 1933), p. 287, I. 2; Ibn Qutayba, 'Uyun al-akhbiir, Cairo 1924, II, 177. 169 'Ibara, fol. 38a, ult.; Ibn Qutayba, al-Ma'iinll-kabir, I, 710 (with a commentary on the verse); VA, s.v. kh r s; al-Jahiz, Rasii'il, ed. 'Abd al-Salam Hartin (Cairo, 1385/1965), II, 358 (attributed to 'Amr b. Qaml'a); al-Jurjanl, op. cit., p. 129. 170 "Ibdra, fol. 44b, 1. 5; Ibn Qutayba, al-Ma'iint l-kabir, I, 480 (with a commentary); VA, s.v. r d y; cf. al-A'sha, Diwdn, p. 39 (Y, 47); al-Khansa', Diwdn (Beirut, 1888), p. 31. 171 "Ibiira, fol. 50a, 1. 3 from bottom; al-Jahiz, Rasa'i/ (Kitiib af-bighaf), II, 358; Ahmad b. Abl Tahir, Balagllat al-nisa', al-Najaf 1361, p. 97, I. 1; al-Bakrl, Simt al-la'ali, ed, 'Abd al-'Azlz al-Maymanl (Cairo, 1354/1936), p. 179 (see the references of the editor ibid.). 172 'Ibdra, fol. SOa; M. Nallino, op. cit., p. 94; Ahmad b. Abl Tahir, op. cit., p. 185. 97 The examples of verses of poetry, hadiths, Qur'an-verses and pious stories adduced above, may convey some idea about the richness of the material provided by Ibn Qutayba in this compilation. Many of the stories are recorded with isndds in which the names of the scholars from whom Ibn Qutayba directly transmitted, are mentioned: Ishaq b. Rahawayh.Ut Ahmad b. Khalll.I?" Abu J:fatim,175who transmitted a great number of stories from al-A~ma'i,176 al-Husayn b. al-Hasan al-Marwazi,l77 Abu I-KhaHab178 and others. Ibn Qutayba's l"? detailed and elaborate compilation gives information about the different methods of interpretation: the symbolical, the reciprocal and antithetical, the etymological, the interpretation by addition and subtraction and the interpretation based on Qur'an and /:zadith.180 The c1assiffication of dreams according to jins, sinf, tab' is recorded as well. 181 Instruction and advice are given to the oneirocritics about their duties, methods and practices.182 Ibn Qutayba's compilation is, in fact, the continuation of an earlier tradition of oneiromancy already approved of by orthodox circles and drawing on a rich treasury of historical anectodes, adab stories, zuhd traditions, poetry, haditb and Qur'an, The numerous stories about dreams in Ibn Ishaq's Sira, the chapter about interpretation of dreams in Ma'rnar b. Rashid's Jiimi', the hadiths about dreams in Ahmad b. Hanbal's Musnad, the compilation of Ibn Abl l-Dunya about the dreams of the righteous and pious, Kitdb al-mandm, (with a special chapter about verses recited in dreams) bear evidence to the wide currency of this material among the orthodox and pious. It is obvious that there existed another kind of oneiromancy based on nonIsiamic and non-Arabic sources. This is indicated by a remark of al-Shafi'I (d. 204): "I left in a1-'Iraq a thing which was invented by the zanddiqa; they call it "ta'bir" and they occupy themselves with it, being distracted by it from the study of Qur'an."183 One may suppose that al-Shafi'I referred to some Lecomte, op. cit., pp. 52-53, no. 3. Lecomte, op. cit., p. 57, no. 9; Ibn Abl Hatim, al-Jarh wa-l-ta'dil (Hyderabad, 1271/1952), h. 50, no. 49. 175 Lecomte, op. cit., p. 50, no. 1; al-Marzubanl, Nur al-qabas, ed. R. Sellheim (Beirut, 1964), I, 225-228. 176 See e.g. 'Ibara, fols. 3b, 4b, 9b, 17b, 20a, 21b, 14b, 38a, 27a, 40a, 23a, 54b, 55a.' 177 Lecomte, op. cit., p. 64, no. 21; Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Jarh, In, 49, no. 219. 178 Lecomte, op. cit., p. 56, no. 8; Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Jarh, In, 549, no. 2479. 179 See Fahd, op. cit., p. 317. 180 'Ibiira, fols. 4a-8b; see Fahd, op. cit., pp. 317-328; .Joseph de Somogyi, "The Interpretation of Dreams in ad-Darntrt's Hayat al-Hayawan", JRAS, 1940, 1-20. 181 "Ibdra, fol. 23b; see Bland, op. cit., p. 136. 182 See e.g. "Ibiira, fol. 23a. 183 Abu Nu'aym, op, cit., IX, 146. 173 174 98 The interpretation of dreams compilations or traditions of Greek oneiromancy. In fact the translation of Artemidoros' The Interpretation of Dreams was done by Hunayn b. Ishaq (d. 260).184 Ibn Qutayba's compilation seems to have been intended as a response to the unorthodox trend of oneiromancy. It was addressed to the orthodox scholar of hadith, to the kdtib, to the adib, to the pious believer. It differs from the work of Artemidoros in that it has at its core the notion that the interpretation of dreams should be subjected to the Arabo-Islamic tradition. The duty of the oneirocritic is to explain the symbols according to these principles, to admonish and to guide. Nowhere in the compilation of Ibn Qutayba is Artemidoros mentioned, although Ibn Qutayba who died in 270, ten years after the death of Hunayn, might have seen Hunayn's translation, or at Ieast have been acquainted with its contents; no hint is given in the compilation of the opinions of philosophers. Some of the quotations from Artemidoros recorded by Abdel Daim (compared with the text of Ps. Ibn SIrln)185 can in fact be found in the compilation of Ibn Qutayba. But these interpretations of dreams might have been already current in 'Iraq in the first centuries of Isiam and might have lost their foreign character; they were probably absorbed at a very early period into the Iore of Muslim oneiromancy. In fact Muslim oneiromancy seems to have absorbed some elements of the oneiromancy of the Ancient Near East. A vestige of this kind seems to be the story of the dream of "Abd a1-Malik.186 The interpretation of this dream tallies with one used for an identical case in an Assyrian tablet.I''? The idea of classifying dreams by the time of night or day188 is echoed in Muslim oneiromancy.189 Traces of Jewish lore are conspicous. The idea of interpretation based on the Qur'an, followed by Ibn Qutayba, is reminiscent of Talmudic interpretation which is based on the Torah. Edited by Toufic Fahd (Damascus, 1964). Arabe d'apres Ibn Sirin, pp. 151-165. 186 'Abd al-Malik saw himself in a dream urinating four times in the mihriib. Ibn alMusayyab interpreted it, saying that four of his sons will rule as Caliphs. The dream was in fact fulfilled, and four of his sons were Caliphs (al-Quda'I, Ta'rikh, Ms. Bodleiana, Pococke 270, fol. 70a; al-Raghib al-Isfahant, op. cit., I, 151; Ibn Ra's Ghanama, Mandqil al-durar, Ms. Chester Beatty 4254, fol. 88a; al-Qalqashandl, Ma'athir al-indfa, cd. 'Abd al-Sattar Farraj (al-Kuwayt, 1964), 1,128; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., V, 123; al-Ibshtht, op. cit., II, 80; Fahd, op. cit., p, 310, note 2). 187 See A. L. Oppenheim, "The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East", Transactions 0/ the American Philosophical Society, vol. 46, part 3, p. 265. 188 See Oppenheim, op. cit., pp. 240 inf, - 241. 189 "Ibiira, fol. 8b: ... wa-asdaqu auqiiti l-ru'yd bi-l-Iayli l-ashdru wa-bi-l-nahiiri l-qii'ikuu ... This is recorded as an utterance of the Prophet by al-Hakim (al-Mustadrak IV, 392: asdaqu 1-I"II'ya bi-l-ashiirit and al-Zurqanl (Shar/:l al-mawdhib VII, 166 1. I); see Oppenheim, op. cit., p, 241 (quoting Bland, op. cit., p. 129). 184 185 L'Oniromancie 99 Furthermore, some passages from the Talmud are almost verbally quoted in the Muslim compilations. A man came to Ibn Slrin, according to a story and told him the dream of one of his acquaintances: the man had dreamt that he split the heads of eggs, Ieft the yolk and took the outer parts of the eggs. Ibn Sirln refused to interpret the dream and insisted that the dreamer come to him personally. The man admitted that it was he who had had the dream. Ibn Sirin stated that the dream indicated that he was a grave-digger, plundering the graves, ransacking the shrouds of the dead and Ieaving their bodies. The man admitted and promised to refrain from doing it again.190 This very dream, with an identical interpretation, is recorded in the story of Rabbi Yishma'el talking with the heretic.191 The passage in Berakhot contains also the story of another dream: the man saw himself pouring oil into an olive tree. Rabbi Yishma'el stated that the man had had sexual intercourse with his mother. The same story is recorded in the Muslim sources with an identical interpretation attributed to Ibn Sirin.l92 The principle, related in the Talmud,193 whereby the dream is fulfilled according to its interpretation is recorded as an utterance of the Prophet.tvThis principle is illustrated in the Talmud by a story of a woman, who saw twice in her dream that a beam broke down from her roof. She came twice to Rabbi El'azar and he interpreted it saying that she would give birth to a male child; so it happened in fact in both cases. Then she dreamt again that the beam of her roof broke down; she came to RabbI El'azar but did not meet him. His students interpreted the dream by saying that her husband would die. When Rabbi El'azar heard about it, he accused his students of having caused the death of the man by their interpretation, because dreams are fulfilled according to their interpretation.195 Closely reminiscent is the story recorded in Muslim sources about a woman who came to the Prophet and told him that she saw in a dream a beam of the roof of her house breaking down; he interpreted it by saying that her husband would return; so it happened. After some time she saw in her sleep the same dream; she came "Ibiira, fols. 22b, 23b, 11.5-8; al-Ibshlhf, op. cit., II, 79. 56b. 192 Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 305; al-Ibshlhl, op. cit., II, 79; al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXI, 206. 193 Berakhot, 55b; see Lowinger, op. cit., p. 25, note 9; Kristianpoler, op. cit., p, XII, and p. 37, no. 107, note I. 194 Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., fol. 152b sup.; al-Hakim, op. cit., IV, 391; al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXI, 173, 175 (al-ru'ya 'ala mii tu'abbanq. 195 Kristianpoler, op. cit., pp. 51-52, nos. 164-165; Lowinger, op. cit., pp. 25 inf. - 26 sup. 196 According to another version she told her dream to 'A'isha. See al-Zurqanl, op. cit. VII, 171. 190 191 Bab. Berakhot, 100 The interpretation of dreams to the Prophet but did not meet him, and related the story of her dream to Abu Bakr.196 He interpreted it by saying that her husband would die.197 The stories, recorded in Jewish sources, about the pious in Paradisel98 and about gaining knowledge of religious precepts and guidance in dreams,199 are closely reminiscent of similar passages in Muslim oneiromancy. The continuity of the Hebrew oneiromancy2oo can be gauged from the story of a man who found a book on oneiromancy written in Hebrew in the ruins of a house in al-Basra.P! The various elements of oneiromancy were successfully absorbed and combined in the Muslim Iiterature on dreams. Enriched by genuine Arabic and Isiamic materiaI, thoughtfully developed by Muslim scholars, it reflects the various ideas and trends in Muslim society and became a popular topic of Arabic Iiterature. Ibn Qutayba's compilation is the earliest extant composition in the field of Muslim oneiromancy, a fine and rich specimen of this genre of Iiterature. 197 'Ibiira, fol. 9a inf. - 9b sup. (Ibn Qutayba attempts to justify the two different interpretations by the fact that either the countenance of the woman changed or the times of the two dreams were different); the version recorded by al-Zurqanl (see above note 196) ends with the Prophet's admonition to 'A'isha to give good interpretations to the dreams of the Muslims, because dreams are fulfilled according to their interpretations. This reminds closely the account of the story in Jewish sources. And see al-Zamakhshari, op. cit., I, 243244; al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXI, 164-165 (quoted from al-Kiift. The woman came twice to the Prophet; in both cases he interpreted the dream by saying that her husband would return safely. At the third time she met an unlucky man [A'sar] who predicted that her husband would die. AI-Majlisi eagerly gives the Sunnl version identifying the "unlucky man" as Abu Bakr). 198 Kristianpoler, op. cit., p. 31, no. 93 and p. 32, no. 96. 199 Cf. Kristianpoler, op. cit., pp. 29-30, nos. 88-91. 200 About the dependence of the Talmudic material on Greek sources see S. Liebermann, Greek and Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (Jerusalem, 1962), pp. 202 seq. [Hebrew]. 201 Ps. Ibn Slrln, op. cit., p. 274. 101 APPENDIX A. List of chapters of the Jerusalem Ms.: 1. ta'wil ru'yati lliihi ta'iilii 2. ta'wilu l-qiyiimati wa-l-jannati wa-l-ndri 3. ru'yatu l-malii'ikati 4. ru'yatu l-samii'i 5. ru'yatu l-anbiyd'i 6. ru'yatu l-ka'bati wa-l-qiblati 7. man tahawwala kdfiran 8. man tahawwala smuhu 9. man qara'a l-qur'iina au adhdhana au band masjidan 10. al-qiidt 11. mathalu l-qii¢i fi l-maniimi 12. al-imiimu 13. al-shamsu wa-l-qamaru wa-l-nujiimu 14. ru'yatu l-insiini wa-a' ¢ii'ihi 15. al-tazwiju wa-l-nikdhu wa-l-taldqu wa-l-waladu 16. ru'yatu l-amwiiti 17. al-araduna wa-l-abniyatu 18. ta'wilu l-tildli wa-l-jibdli 19. ta'wilu ru'yati l-amtdri wa-l-andii'i wa-mii ttasala bi-dhiilika 20. al-ashribatu 21. ta'wilu l-ashjdri wa-l-thimiiri wa-l-nabiiti 22. ta'wilu 1-l;zubUbi 23. al-surddiqdtu wa-l-fasdtitu wa-mii ashbahahii 24. al-thiyiibu wa-l-libiisu 25. al-farshu 26. al-sildhu 27. al-huliyyu 28. ta'wilu I-niiri wa-mii yunsabu ilayhd 29. al-sahdbu wa-l-mataru wa-md yakimu bihimii 30, al-tayardnu wa-I-wathbu 31. ta'wilu l-khayli wa-I-bariidhini wa-ashbiihihii 32. ta'wilu l-bighdli wa-l-hamiri 33. ru'yatu l-himdri 34. al-ibilu 35. al-thirdnu wa-I-baqaru 36. ta'wilu l-da'ni wa-l-kibiishi 37. al-ma'izu 38. ta'wilu l-wahshi 102 fol. 25a fol. 25b foJ. 26a foJ. 26a foJ. 26a foJ. 26b fol. 27a fol. 27a fol. 27b fol. 27b fol. 28a fol. 28a fol. 28b fol. 29a fol. 32b fol. 33b fol. 34b foJ. 35b fol. 36a fol. 38a fol. 38b fol. 39b fo1. 40b fo1. 41a fol. 42b fo1. 43b fo1. 45a fo1. 47b fo1. 49a fol. 49a fo1. 49b fol. 50b fo1. 51a fol. 51b fol. 52a fol. 52b fol. 53b fol. 53b The interpretation of dreams fo1. fo1. fo1. fol. fo1. fol. fo1. 54b 55a 55a 56b 58b 59a 59b 39. al-filu wa-l-jdmiisu wa-l-khinziru 40. 42. al-hashardtu 41. al-sibii'u It ta'wili l-tayri 43. baniitu I-mii'i min al-samaki wa-ghayrihi 44. al- 'aqdribu wa-l-hayyiitu wa-I-hawiimmu 45. ta'wilu l-sunnii'i 46. ta'wilu l-nawiidiri B. List of chapters of the Ankara 1. Dhikru I-nafsi wa-l-riii: 2. Al-ta'wil bi-I-asmii' 3. Al-ta'wil bi-l-ma'nd Ms.: fol, 62a 4. 5. 6. 7. Al-ta'wil Al-ta'wil Al-ta'wil Al-ta'wil bi-l-Qur'iin bi-l-ahiidith bi-I-mathal al-sd'ir bi-l-didd wa-l-maqliib 8. Ta'biru l-ru'yii bi-l-ziydda wa-l-nuqsdn 9. Ta'biru l-ru'yii bi-l-auqdt 10. Ta'biru I-ru'yii bi-khtildfi I-hay'iit 11. 'Ajii'ib al-ru'yii 12. Wa-min "ajibi l-ru'yii 13. Intihii'u I-ru'yii 14. Wa-min nawddirihi md rawii Jiibiru bnu Damra 15. Wa-min nawddirihi md rawii Marwdnu bnu Mu'iiwiyata 16. Wa-nawiidir a$Qiibihi 'alayhi l-saldm 17. Nddira fi l-ru'yd 18. Wa-min nawiidir al-ru'yd 19. Wa-min nawiidirihi 'alii ghayri aslin 20. Wa-min nawddirihi wa- 'ajii'ibihi 21. Wa-min nawddirihi fi I-ru'yii 22. Amthilat al-ru'yii 23. Wa-min 'ajii'ibi bni Sirin 24. Adab al-ta'wil 103