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bani_israil.pdf Haddithu 'an bani isra'ila wa-Ia haraja A Study of an early tradition This widely current tradition was variously interpreted by Muslim scholars. They differed in their opinions about the significance of the words of this hadith, its intent and its implications. The core of the discussion lay in fact in the problem whether it was lawful to turn to Jewish and Christian sources for guidance, to study Jewish and Christian compilations and to incorporate certain aspects from them into the Muslim cultural tradition and belief. Scrutiny of some of these discussions may help to elucidate the tendencies of the various religious groups in Islam and assist us in gaining a deeper insight into the attitudes of Muslim scholars. I The tradition Haddithu 'an bani isra'il was considered by Goldziher as one which is opposed to the trend of Muslim orthodox scholars who watched with reluctance the influence of Jewish Aggada and of Christian legends on Muslim tradition.1 The transmission of this hadith, says Goldziher, serves as evidence of the controversy among the scholars of the second century about the transmission of Jewish lore. The earliest source in which this tradition is recorded is the Risala of al-Shafi'i (d. 204).2 This tradition is also reported in the Jami' of Ma'mar b. Rashid (d. 154),3 and in 'Abd al-Razzaq's Musannafwith the following isnad: 'Abd al-Razzaq > aI-Auza'I4 > Hassan b. 'AtiyyaS > Abu Kabsha6 > 'Abdallah b. 'Amr b. aI'As. The Prophet said: "Transmit on my authority, be it even one verse (from the Qur'an), narrate (traditions) concerning the Children of Israel and there 1 Muhammedanische Studien (Halle, 1890), II, 137, note 3; and see G. Vajda, "Juifs et Musulmans selon Ie Hadit", JA CLXXIX (1937), 115-120; S. D. Goitein, Banu [sra'i1, E[2. 2 Melanges Judeo-Arabes, IX, "Isra'iliyyat", REJ XLIV (1902) 64, note 2. 3 Ms. FeyzuIlah 541, fo1. 59b, inf. (See F. Sezgin, GAS, I, 291). 4 See on him F. Sezgin, GAS, I, 516. 5 See on him Ibn l;Iajar, Tahdhib al-tahdhib (Hyderabad, 1327), II, 251, no. 460; al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-i'tidal, ed. 'Ali Mul;!arnmad al-Bijawi (Cairo, 1382/1963), I, 479, no. 1809. 6 See on him Ibn I;Iajar, Tahdhib, XII, 210, no. 974. is nothing objectionable (in that); he who tells a lie on my authority - let him take his place in Hell."? In the Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbalf this tradition is recorded with the same chain of transmitters; it contains however a slight variant: wa-man kadhaba 'alayya muta'ammidan, "intentionally't.? 7 Ms. Murad Molla 604, fol. 113b: ballighii 'annt wa-lau iiyatan wa-haddithii 'an bani isra'tla wa-ld haraja fa-man kadhaba 'alayya kadhibatan fa-l-yatabawwa' maq'adahu min al-niiri. And see this tradition: al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-saghir, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad 'Uthman (Cairo, 1388/1968), I, 166; al-Fasawt, al-Ma'rifa wa-l-ta'rikh, Ms. Esad Ef. 2391, fol, 162b; al-Nuwayri, Nihdyat al-arab (Cairo [reprint] 1964), XIV, 182; Abu Nu'aym, Hilyat al-auliyii' (Cairo, 1351/1932), VI, 78. 8 Ed. Ahmad Muhammad Shakir (Cairo, 1953), XI, 127, no. 6888; cf. al-Bayhaqi, Ma'rifat al-sunan wa-l-dthiir, ed. Ahmad Saqr (Cairo, 1389/1968), I, 48-51. 9 See about the tradition man kadhaba 'alayya: Ibn al-Jauzi, Kitdb al-maur/u'at, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad 'Uthman (Cairo, 1386/1966), I, 55-98; and see ibid., p. 63 the remark of Wahb b. Jartr: wa-lldhi, md qdla "muta'ammidan", wa-antum taqalana "muta'ammidan"; cf. al-Khattb al-Baghdadl, Taqyid al-'ilm, ed. Youssef Eche (Damascus, 1949), p, 29: waman kadhaba 'alayya; qiila hammiimun: ahsibuhu qdla "muta'ammidan" ... fa-l-yatabawwa' ... ; cf. J. Goldziher, Muh. St., II, 132 (see notes 3-4); and see Ahmad b. Hanbal, op. cit., IV, nos. 2675, 2976; V, nos. 3694, 3801, 3814, 3847; II, nos. 584, 629, 630, 903, 1()()()"'1001, 1075, 1291; I, nos. 326, 469, 507; VI, nos. 4338, 4742; VII, nos. 5232, 5291; IX, nos. 6309, 6478; X, nos. 6592, 6593. And see an interesting setting of this utterance ibid., VI, no. 4156: jama'ana rasidu Ildh! (s) wa-nahnu arbaiina, fa-kuntu fi dkhiri man atiihu, qdla: innakum mansiiriina wa-musibuna wa-maftiihun lakum, fa-man adraka dhiilika fa-l-yattaqi llaha wa-lya'mur bi-l-ma'rufi, wa-l-yanha an al-munkari, wa-man kadhaba 'alayya muta'ammidan ... ; and see a remarkable version ibid., V, no. 3025: ittaqii l-haditha 'annt ilia md 'alimtum; qdla: wa-man kadhaba 'ala l-qur'dni bi-ghayri 'ilmin fa-l-yatabawwa' ... ; cf. al-Daylaml, al-Firdaus, Ms. Chester Beatty 3037, fol. 27a: ittaqu l-hadttha 'anni ilia md 'alimtum, fa-innahu man kadhaba 'alayya muta'ammidan ... ; cf. Ahmad b.Hanbal, op. clt., IV, no. 2976: ... man kadhaba 'alayya ... wa-man kadhaba fi l-qur'iini ... ; and see ibid., III, no. 2069: ... man qiila ft l-qur'iini bi-ghayri 'ilmin ... ; and see Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqdt (Beirut, 1957), II, 337: ... man qiila 'alayya md lam aqul fa-qad tabawwa'a ... ; cf. al-Jarraht, Kashf al-khafd' wa-muzil al-ilbiis (Cairo, 1352), II, 275, no. 2593; Ibn al-Athlr, al-Nihdya, ed. al-Zawl-al- Taniil)l (Cairo, 1963), I, 159; al-Tirmidhi, $a/.zi/.z (Cairo, 1934), XIII, 167 where this utterance is connected with the story of khiisif al-na'l; al-Qundiizl, Yaniibi' al-mawadda (Kazimiyya, 1385), pp. 59, 209; al-Khattb al-Baghdadt, Ta'rtkb Baghdad (Cairo, 1349/1931), I, 265; al-Safarlni, Ghidha' al-albdb (Cairo, 1324), I, 118; Yusuf b. Musa al-HanafI, al-Mutasar min al- mukhtasar (Hyderabad, 1362), II, 261-262; al-Tabaranl, op. cit., II, 55;al-Fasawi op. cit., fol. 158a; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak (Hyderabad, 1342), II, 401; al-Dhahabt, Mizdn, IV, 393 sup.; AbU Nu'aym, op. cit., II, 369; cf. Abu 'Ubayd, Farla'if al-qur'iin, Ms. Leiden, Or. 3056, fol. 3b: ... anna rasiila lldhi ($) 'ahida ilaynd fi hajjati l-wadd'i fa-qdla: 'alaykum bi-l-qur'iini fa-innakum sa-tarji'iina ilii qaumin yashtahiina l-haditha 'anni fa-man 'aqifa shay'an fa-l-yuhadditk 'annt bihi, wa-man qdla 'alayya md lam aqul fa-l-yatabawwa' bay tan au maq'adan It jahannam; and see al-Suyutt, al-Jiimi' al-kabtr, Ms. al-Jazzar, Acre, I, 351: haddithi; 'anni kama sami'tum we-ld haraja, ilia man akhbara 'ala lldhi kadhiban muta'ammidan li-yudilla bihi l-ndsa bighayri 'ilmin fa-I-yatabawwa' maq'adahu min al-ndri; Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam, Futu/.z Misr, ed. 216 Haddithii 'an bani isra'ila The tradition haddithii 'an bani isrii'il forms, as we see, a part of a combined hadith in which the Prophet bids the faithful to transmit verses (of the Qur'an), urges them to narrate (traditions) concerning the Children of Israel and warns them not to lie while transmitting traditions on his authority. In some versions only two parts of the combined tradition are recorded: "Transmit on my authority be it even one verse and narrate concerning the Children of Israel and there is nothing objectionable (in that)."10 The same version as given in the Jiimi' of Ma'mar b. Rashid, consisting of three parts, is recorded by al-Mu'afa b. Zakariyya (d. 390) in his al-Jalis al:;alil,lal-kiifi wa-l-anis al-na$il,lal-shdfi.t) and is accompanied by a comprehensive comment by the author. The Children of Israel, al-Mu'afa argues, were specified in this tradition because of the miraculous events which had happened to them, just as the sea was specified because of the miraculous features which are in it; the permission was granted to narrate about (the wonders of) the sea with keeping away from sin of lie. 12 The tendency apparent in this tradition to emphasize the miraculous and wonderful aspect of the stories about the Children of Israel is reflected in an enlarged version of this saying: haddithu 'an bani isrd'ila fa-innahu kdnat fihim a'iijibu.s> Al-Mu'afa records two views about the syntax of wa-lii haraja. These views give two quite different interpretations of the expression. According to one opinion ld haraja is a khabar, a predicate; the meaning of the expression is thus: there is nothing objectionable in telling these stories. As many people, argues Mu'afa, are reluctant to listen to these stories, this hadith' grants permission to transmit them, for refraining from transmitting them might bring about the disappearance of wisdom and might cause the roads of thought to be closed up, the means of knowledge to be interrupted, the doors of consideration and exhortation to be shut. The other view considers the phrase wa-ld haraj as denoting a prohibition. It is equivalent with wa-lii tahruju, do not commit sin by telling stories which you know are lies deceiving peopie by telling these stories. 14 C. Torrey (New Haven, 1922),273 inf.-274: man kadhaba 'alayya kadhibatan muta'ammidan ... associated with: ala, wa-man shariba l-khamra ... 10 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Jdmi' bayiin al-'ilm wa-fadlihi (Cairo, 1346), n, 40; al-Quda'], Shihab al-akhbiir, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 6496, fo1. 39a. 11 Ms. Topkapi Saray, Ahmet III, 2321, foIs. 3a-4a. 12 Fo1. 4a: ... wa-khassa bani isrii'ila bi-hiidhd li-ma madd fthim min al-a'ajibi kama khassa l-bahra bimd fihi min al-a'ajibi ... (the allusion refers apparently to the well known utterance, or proverb: haddith 'an al-bahri wa-ld haraj; see al-Jarraht, op. cit., I, 352, no. 117). 13 Al-Daylaml, op. cit., fo1. 72a; L 'A, s.v. /:I r j. 14 Al-Mu'afa, op. cit., fo1. 4a: ... wa-lii haraja yattajihu fihi ta'wilani, ahaduhumd an yakiina khabaran mahdan fi mandhu wa-lafzihi, ka-annahu dhakara bani isra'tla wa-kiinat fihim 217 The two grammatical constructions reflect in fact two conflicting interpretations of the tradition. Taking la haraja as khabar implies that there is no objection whatsoever to tell the stories about the Children of Israel whether true or invented. The motivation adduced for this permission is of interest: refraining from transmitting these stories would bring to a stop the transmission of the hikma, the wisdom, and of thoughtful scrutiny of stories concerning past people and prophets. Further it brings to Iight the fact that some orthodox circles disliked stories about the Children of IsraeI, which must have been widely current. On the other hand Iii haraja, taken as prohibition, implies an interdiction to transmit popular stories similar to those of the qU$$ii$. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi records the same hadith. in a different context altogether. "Do not write anything on my authority except the Qur'an" - says the Prophet. "Let one who writes anything else efface it. Narrate (traditions) concerning the Children of Israel and there is nothing objectionable (in that). He who tells lies on my behalf shall take his place in Hell."15 In this version of the hadith the permission to narrate stories about the Children of Israel is coupled with the interdiction to record in writing the utterances of the Prophet. A certain difference is noticeable in the intent of a tradition recorded on the authority of Abu Hurayra. The Prophet, the tradition says, saw people writing his utterances. He rebuked them and forbade to write his hadith. "Do you desire a book besides the book cf God"? - the Prophet asked. "The only thing that Ied astray the peoples preceding you was the fact that they put down in writing (things) from books beside the Book of God." Then people asked the Prophet: "Shall we transmit (traditions) on your authority?" "Transmit on my authority, said the Prophet, and there is nothing objectionable (in that); and he who lies about me intentionally let him take his seat in Hell." Those present asked: "Shall we tell the stories about the Children of IsraeI"? The Prophet answered: "Narrate concerning them and there is nothing objectionable (in that). Whatever you tell about them, there are always a'ajibu, wa-kiina kathirun min al-ndsi yanbis sam'uhum 'anha, fa-yakunu hiidha maqta'atan Ii-man 'indahu 'i1mun minhii an yuhadditha l-niisa biha; fa-rubbamd addii hiidha ilii durusi l-hikmati wa-nqitti'i mawiiddi I-fa'idati wa-nsidddi tariqi i'mali l-fikrati wa-ighliiqi abwdbi l-itti'iizi wa-l-ribrati, fa-ka-annahu qdla: laysa fi tabadduthikum bi-md 'alimtumuhu min dhdlika harajun; wa-l-ta'wtlu l-thdni an yakima l-ma'nd It hadha l-nahya; fa-ka-annahu qdla: wa-lii tahrajti bi-an tatahaddathii bi-md qad tabayyana lakum I-kadhibu fihi, muhaqqiqina lahu au gharrina abadan bihi. 15 Taqyid ai-iilm, pp. 30-31: Iii taktubii 'anni shay'an ilia l-qur'iina, fa-man kataba ghayrahu fa-l-yamhuhu, wa-haddithii 'an bani isrii'ila wa-la baraja, wa-man kadhaba 'alayya fa-l-yatabawwa' maq'adahu min al-ndri. 218 Haddithii 'an bam isra'ila things which are more wonderful."16 The permission to narrate stories about the Children of Israel is here put in opposition to the prohibition to record the traditions of the Prophet in a written form. It is however established as being on a par with the oral transmission of Prophetic traditions. Even the wording is identical: haddithii 'anni wa-lii haraja and haddithii 'an bani isrii'ila wa-lii haraja. Of quite a different content is the tradition reported by Zayd b. Aslam and recorded in Ma'mar b. Rashid's Jiimi',17 The Prophet said: "Do not ask the people of the Book about anything, because they will not show you the right path having already led themselves astray." We asked: "0 Messenger of God, may we not narrate (stories) concerning the Children of Israel" ? The Prophet answered: "Narrate, there is nothing objectionable (in that)." In this tradition the setting and the circumstances of the utterance are quite different. Here a clear line is drawn between the problem whether to consult the people of the Book in religious matters and the question whether to narrate stories from their history. It is forbidden to ask the people of the Book about problems of religion and belief; they cannot guide anyone because they themselves went astray. But it is permitted to narrate stories about them. Ibn al-Athlr recordstf some of the interpretations already mentioned, in which the miraculous character of the stories is stressed, and he further mentions some additional ones. Haraj denotes narrowness l? and is applied to denote "sin" and "forbidden deeds." Ld haraja has to be glossed: Iii ithma, Iii ba'sa.2o The expression indicates that there is no sin, there is nothing objectionable in narrating the wonderful events which happened to the Children of Israel, even if these events might not happen to the Muslims; this does not mean, however, that one is permitted to tell lies. Slightly different is another interpretation quoted by Ibn al-Athlr that there is no sin or objection to narrate about the Children of Israel stories as they 16 Ibid., p. 34: kharaja 'alaynd rasidu lldhi (s) wa-na(znu naktubu l-ahiiditha, fa-qdla: mii hiidhd l/adhi taktubiina'l qulnii: aluidithu nasma'uhii minka. qiila: kitiibun ghayru kitdbi lldhi ], atadriina md [a] dalla l-umama qablakum? ala bi-ma ktatabii min al-kutubi ma'a kitiibi lldhi ta'ala? qulnd: a-nuhaddithu 'anka ya rasida lliihi'! qdla: haddithii 'anni wa-la haraja, wa-man kadhaba 'alayya muta'ammidan fa-I-yatabawwa' maq'adahu min al-ndri. qulnd: fanatahaddathu 'an bani isrii'lla'l qiila: haddithii wa-ld haraja, fa-innakum lam tuhaddithii 'anhum bi-shay'in ilia wa-qad kdna fihim a'jabu minhu ... 17 Fol. 59b; 'Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, Ms. fol. I13b: bab hal yus'alu ahlu l-kitdbi 'an shay'in ... 'an zaydi bni aslama anna I-nabiyya ($) qa/a: la tas'alu ahla l-kitiibi 'an shay' in fa-innahum Ian yahdiikum, qad adalla anfusahum. qi/a: ya rasida lldhi, ala nuhaddithu 'an bani isrd'ila ? qdla: (zaddithu wa-ld haraja. 18 Al-Nihiiya, I, 361. 19 See Raghib al-Isfahanl, al-Mufraddt It gharib al-qur'iin (Cairo, 1324), p. llI, S.v. (z r j. 20 See al-Majlisi, Bihdr, IV, 495 (new ed.). 219 were told, whether these stories are true or not; the remoteness of time (i.e. between the period of the Children of Israel and the time of Islam - K) makes it impossible to verify the story and the transmitter cannot be responsible for its reliability. This is set in opposition to the traditions about the Prophet: a haditb should only be transmitted after one has made sure about the soundness of the transmission and the righteousness of the transmitters.s! This interpretation was adopted by al-'AzIzI (d. 1070) who is even more explicit in his comment. "Narrate concerning the Children of Israel" glosses aI-'AzIzI by "tell about them the stories and exhortations" (ballighii 'anhum al-qisasa wa-l-mawii'izai. La haraja is explained by the statement that there is no sin incumbent upon a transmitter who records these stories without isndd. Because of the remoteness of time it is enough to make an assumption that the tradition concerns them (fa-yakfi ghalabatu l-zanni bi-annahu 'anhum). This tradition is followed by a hadith, which urges people to transmit traditions about the Prophet and warns against invention and lie in such traditions.22 Here the expression haddithii 'anni bimd tasma'iina is explained by the recommendation to observe sound isndds and to refrain from the transmission of hadiths with faulty isndds. The reasons for the permission to narrate stories about the Children of Israel as opposed to con suIting them concerning their religious tenets is expounded by al-Munawl (d. 1031). There is no contradiction between the haditli which allows the transmission of stories and the one which interdicts the transmission of tenets and rules, al-Munawl argues. The transmission of their religious law is in fact forbidden because their rules were abrogated.23 Al-'AlqamI (d. 969) considers the permission to narrate stories in the light of the changes which took place in the Muslim community. The Prophet, al'Alqami argues, disapproved of studying the books of the Children of Israel and deriving knowledge from them. Later the situation improved and the prohibition was lifted. The prohibition was issued when the prescriptions of M uslim law and the foundations of the Islamic religion had not been firmly established, out of fear of e fitna (allurement). When that which was apprehended ceased, permission to narrate was granted, because listening to accounts of past events 21 Al-Nihdya, I, 361; and see al-Jazarl, Qi$a$ al-anbiyii' (al-Najaf, 1964), p. 522 (quoting Ibn Athir); and see ibid., p. 522 supra, a ShI'i permission to transmit the stories of the Children of Israel. 22 Al-Siriij al-munir (Cairo, 1957), II, 223: baddithu 'anni bimd tasmaana wa-la taqidt; illd haqqan, wa-man kadhaba 'alayya buniya lahu bay tun fi jahannama yarta' u fihi. 23 Al-'Azizi, op. cit., II, 145: ... wa-idhnuhu Iii yunaft nahyahu ft khabarin dkhara li-anna l-ma'dhiina fihi l-tahdithu bi-qisasihim wa-l-manhiyyu 'anhu l-'amalu bi-ahkdmihim li-naskhihd, 220 Haddithii 'an bani isrilila entails edification.24 Al-'Alqaroi seems thus to consider the saying haddithii 'an bani isrii'i/a as an utterance abrogating an earlier prohibiting utterance. Al-Jarrahl (d. 1162) quotes this interpretation among other interpretations recorded by him. As proof of the prohibition to narrate stories concerning the Children of Israel al-Jarrahi mentions the story of 'Umar who was forbidden by the Prophet to copy from the Torah. Later, says al-Jarrahi, the permission to narrate such stories was granted, and this is why the utterance was issued. 25 Some of the interpretations reflect a tendency to limit this permission or even to cancel it. The Iii haraja, "there is nothing objectionable", may be complemented by a phrase: "if you do not narrate". 26 The hadith thus stresses the obligatory character of the transmission of a tradition of the Prophet, but leaves it to the discretion of the faithful whether to narrate about the Children of Israel. A restricting interpretation asserts that the term Banii Isra'Il refers to the sons of Jacob; the haditn urges their story to be narrated together with that of Joseph. This interpretation is rejected by al-'AzIzI with the remark: wahddhd ab'adu A peculiar interpretation explains the reason for this permission by stating that the stories about the Children of Israel contain some distasteful expressions and therefore it was necessary to stress that their transmission was not objectionable.28 But these restricting interpretations were not effective. The saying haddithii 'an bani isrd'ila wa-ld haraja, attached to various other traditions, became widely current among Muslims in the first half of the second century. This permission to narrate stories about the Children of Israel caused the door to be opened widely to Jewish lore and traditions transmitted by Muslim scholars. II The themes covered by the stories about the Children of Israel are very extensive. They include stories about prophets and their warnings, about sins committed by the Children of Israel and the punishment inflicted on them, 24 Ibid.,: ... wa-qdla I-'alqamiyyu: ay la 4iqa 'alaykum l-tahdithi 'anhum li-annahu kana taqaddama minhu (~) al-zajru 'an al-akhdhi 'anhum wa-l-nazari ft kutubihim thumma basala l-tawassu'u Ii dhdlika; wa-kdna l-nahyu waqa'a qabla istiqrdri l-ahkdmi l-isldmiyyati wa-lqawd'idi l-diniyyati khashyata l-fitnati; thumma lammii ziila l-mahdhiau waqa'a l-idhnu Ii dhdlika lima sima'! l-akhbdri llatt kiinat fi zamanihim min al-i'tibdrt. 25 Al-Jarrahr, op. cit., I, 353. 26 Ibn al-Athtr, op. cit., I, 361: ... wa-haddithu 'an bani tsrii'tla wa-ld haraja, ay: lii haraja 'alaykum in lam tuhaddithii 'anhum; and see al-Jarraht, op. cit., I, 353, Il. 11-12; ai-'Azizi, op. cit., II, 145. 27 Al-Siriij al-munir, II, 145. 28 Ibid. n n 221 about the sufferings of the righteous and pious and the reward granted to them by God, about utterances and sayings of sages and wise men, about supplications of prophets and pious men, about speeches and wills of nobles, saints and martyrs. These stories usually called "Lsrii'iliyydt" included predictions of the early prophets about the appearance of the Prophet and descriptions of the Muslim community, about Caliphs and rebels, about decline of dynasties, about the Mahdi and the signs heralding the Day of Judgement. This lore was transmitted by Jews and Christians or by members of these two religions who studied their Scriptures and embraced the faith of Islam. In the widely current tradition about the supplications of Moses,29 he implored the Lord to grant his people, the Children of Israel, the excellent qualities and merits which were enumerated in the Torah; God preferred however to choose the Muslim community and to grant them these qualities and The Torah also contains the description of the Prophet.s! God revealed to Moses that the Prophet would be sent and bade him inform the Children of Israel to obey him and embrace his faith,32 God also disclosed in the Psalms to David the appearance of the Prophet and recorded the qualities of his people.v Isaiah predicted in his prophecy the appearance of Jesus and God bade Jesus urge his people to embrace the faith of Muhammad and told him about the latter's personality.V Accordingly, it is evident that Muhammad is the heir of the preceding prophets and that the Muslim community inherited the rank and position of the Chosen People. A ShI'I tradition tells a story about a talk of the Prophet with a Jew in which the Prophet said that the first passage in the Torah stated: Muhammad is the Messenger of God; in Hebrew it is Tab (Tov - K); the Prophet then quoted other passages in which the wa$iyy 'Ali, his children Hasan and Husayn (Shubbar and Shubbayr) and Fatima were explicitly mentioned,36 It may be See Miskawayh, al-Hikmatu l-khiilidatu, 29 ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Badawl (Cairo, 1952), p, 133 imundjdt musa). 30 AbU Nu'aym, op. cit., V, 385-386; Ibn Zafar, Khayru l-bishar bi-khayri l-bashar ([n.p.), 1280), pp. 25-34; Ibn al-Jauzr, al- Wafd bi-ahwdl al-mustafd, ed. Mustafa 'Abd al-Wahid (Cairo, 1386/1966), I, 38-42; al-Tha'labI, Qisa« al-anbiyii' (Cairo [n.d.]), p. 27; al-Suyiltl, al-Hdwi li-l-fatiiwi, ed. Muhammad Muhyi l-Dln 'Abd al-Harnld (Cairo, 1387/1959),II, 281, 282 ult.-283; Ibn Kathlr, Shamii'il al-rasid, ed. Mu~tafa 'Abd al-Wahid (Cairo, 1386/1967), 114-115; al-BayhaqI, Dald'il al-nubuwwa, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 3013, fo!' 64b. 31 See AbU Nu'ayrn, op. cit., V, 387; Ibn Kathlr, Shamd'il, pp. 111-115; al-Suyiitl, all;ltiwi, II, 282-283. 32 AbU Nu'aym, op. cit., VI, 33-35; al-Majlisl, Bihdr, XIII, 332-333, 340-341 (newed.). 33 Al-Suyutt, al-Hdwi, II, 281 inf.-282; Ibn Kathlr, Shamd'il, p. 115. 34 Ibn Kathir, al-Biddya wa-l-nihiiya, II, 32. 35 Al-Suyiitl, al-Hdwi, II, 114; Ibn al-Jauzl, al-Wafd, I. 60. 36 AI-Majlisi, op, cit., XIII, 331-332 (new ed.). 222 Haddithii 'an bani isra'ila mentioned that the names of the two sons of 'Ali, Hasan and Husayn, were given by the Prophet himself. The angel Gabriel revealed to the Prophet the names of the two sons of Aharon, Shubbar and Shubbayr, which are written in the Torah and ordered him to give these names to the two children of 'AlI. The rendering of these names is al-Hasan and al-Husayn-? (probably Hebrew: Shefer and Shaflr - K). Taking into account the fact that at first the name intended to be given to the children was Harb and that the Prophet stated in the well known haditli that 'Ali was in relation to the Prophet like Aharon to Moses, one can assess the political implication of the story. Scholars of the Holy Scriptures, Jews and Christians, were supposed to have the ability to foretell future events: they were thought to derive their knowledge from the Torah or other Holy Books. Ka'b standing at Siffin put his leg on a stone and said: "Woe to you Siff'in! The Children of Israel fought here with each other and left on the battle-field seventy thousand killed; so it will be with the Muslims." It really happened at the battle of Siffin between 'Ali and Mu'awiya, "There is no space on earth the events of which were not recorded in the Torah" - said Ka'b.38 In a talk with 'Umar, Ka'b is stated to have said: "Were it not for a sentence in the Qur'an (Sura xiii, 39), I would foretell to you everything which will happen until the Day of Judgement."39 Ka'b was accordingly able to tell 'Umar that the description of his personality is given in the Torah as qarn min hadid, and he could further predict that 'Umar would be killed; then the following Caliph will be killed by an unjust faction; afterwards disasters will prevail.w A bishop consulted by 'Umar could assert that he found 'Umar's description in his Scriptures as qarn min hadid (glossed 37 Al-Dhahabl, Siyar a'liim al-nubala', ed. As'ad Talas (Cairo, 1962), III, 165; Yawdqilt al-siyar, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 3771, fol. 141a; al-Tabarl, Dald'il al-imdma (al-Najaf, 1383/1963), pp. 63, 73; Ibn Maktila, al-Ikmdl, (Hyderabad, 1381/1962),IV, 378; al-Tfisl, A mali (al-Najaf, 1384/1964), I, 377; Rijal al-Kashshi (al-Najaf [n.d.]), p. 26; al-Majlisi, op. cit., XII, 113; XXXIX, 63; XLIII, 237-242 (new ed.). 38 Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Ishrdf [i mandzil al-ashriif, Ms. Chester Beatty 4427, fol. 69a; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Isti'db, ed. 'Ali MuO. al-Bijawi (Cairo [n.d.]), III, 1287; al-Suyiitl, atHawt, II, 283-284; al-Qurtubi, al-Tadhkira, ed. Ahmad MuO. Mursi (Cairo [n.d.l), p, 543; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba (Cairo, 1325/1907), V, 250, no. 7157; al-Suyutl, al-Khasa'is al-kubrd, ed. Muhammad KhalU Haras (Cairo, 1386/1967),I, 80. 39 Al-Tabari, Tafsir, ed. Mahmud Muh, Shakir (Cairo, 1969), XVI, 484, no. 20485; alQurtubt, Tafsir, ed. Ibrahim Itfish (Cairo, 1387/1967),IX, 330; a ShY'!source (al-t.Ayyashl, To/sir, II, 215, no. 54) attributes this saying to 'Ali b. al-Husayn, 40 AI-Haythami, Majma' al-zawii'id (Beirut, 1967), IX, 65 infra.-66; cf. Abii Nu'aym, op. cit., V, 387 ult.-388 supra.; Muh, b. Yahya al-Ash'art al-Malaqi, al-Tamhid wa-l-bayiin fi maqtal al-shahid 'uthmdn, ed. Mahmiid Yiisuf Zayid (Beirut, 1964),p. 21 ; Ib;J.Ra's Ghanama, Mandqil al-Durar, Ms. Chester Beatty 4254, fol. 23a; Nu'aym b. Hammad, Kit. al-fitan, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 9449, fol. 22a-b; al-Suyutl, al-Khasii'is, I, 77. 223 by him as qawiyyun, shadidun) and predict that he will be followed by a man, who has nothing objectionable in him (Iii ba'sa bihi), but he will prefer his relatives; 'Umar recognized forthwith that it would be 'Uthman, Afterwards, said the bishop, there will be "a crack in the rock" which he explained as "a sword drawn and blood shed." Later there will be a united congregation (jama'atun).41 'Abdallah b. Salam reported that the description of 'Uthman in the Book of God was: "the Commander of those who forsake and kill,"42 and foretold that he would be murdered.O Ka'b foretells the rule of Mu'awiya.s+ 'Abdallah b. al-Zubayr stated that everything foretold by Ka'b about his rule really happened to him.45 It is a Jew who foretells the just rule of 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz;46 and it is from the Torah that the prediction that heaven and earth will bewail the death of 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz is quoted.s? Ka'b foretells the appearance of the black banners of the 'Abbasids,48 gives the names of the descendants of 'Abbas who will rule the Muslim community-? and emphasizes in a separate statement: al-mansiiru mansiiru bani hiishimin.50 It is, of course, an utterance with important political implications. Who was the person the YemenIs believed to be al-Mansiir, can be gauged from the refutation of 'Abdallah b. 'Amr (b. al-'A~): yii ma'shara l-yamani, taqidiina inna l-mansiira minkum.fa-lii; wa-lladhi nafsi bi-yadihi, innahu la-qurashiyyun abiihu, wa-Iau ashii'u an ansibahu i/ii aqsii jaddin huwa lahu fa'altu.s) Tubay', the stepson of Ka'b, quoted from the Torah the name of Saffal). and predicted that he would live forty years.52 'Abdallah b. 'Amr b. al-'A~ quoted from the Books which he found after the battle of Yarmuk the names of the 'Abbasid Caliphs who would rule the Muslim community: Saffah, Mansur, al-Amln etc.53 Ka'b Nu'aym b. Hammad, op. cit., fol. 28a; al-Suyutt, al-Khasii'is, I, 78-79. Nu'aym b. Hammad, op. cit., fol. 41b; but al-Malaqi, al-Tamhid, p. 113 has instead of "amirun 'ala l-khddhil wa-l-qatil" "amtrun 'alii l-qatil al-amir" (erroneous) and "amirun 'ala l-qdtil wa-l-dmir" (correct); al-Suyiitl, al-Kh~ti'i$, I, 78-79. 43 AI-MiilaqI,op. cit., p. 113, 135-136, 176-177; al-Qurtubt, Tadhkira, p. 534; al-Haythamt, op, cit., IX, 92-93. 44 Nu'ayrn b. Harnmad, op. cit., fol. 28b. 45 Nu'aym b. Hammad, op. cit., Ms. Atif Ef. 602, fol. 4a, 1. 5 from bottom; al-Suyutt, al-Khasa'is, I, 80 ult.-81. 46 Nu'aym b. Hammad, op. cit., Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 9449, fol. 28a; al-Suytitl, al-Khasii'is, I, 81. 47 Al-Suyiitl, al-Hdwi, II, 284. 48 Nu'aym b. Hammad, op. cit., Ms. Br. Mus., fol. 53a. 49 Ibid., fol. 27b: .. .'an ka'bin qdla: yamliku thaliithatun min wuldi l-'abbasi al-mansiiru 41 42 wa-l-mahdiyyu 50 wa-l-saffdbu. Ibid., fol. 27a. 51 Ibid., fol. 27a. 52 Ibid., fol. 27a. 53 Ibid., fol. 25b; and see about the books and these traditions Ibn KathIr. al-Bidiiya, II, 298 infra.- 299 supra. 224 Haddithii 'an bani isra'/la predicts the signs which will announce the end of the 'Abbasid rule,54 gives details about civil wars which will occur in the different provinces of the Muslim Empire,55 and foretells the appearance of the SufyanI.56 Farqad aISabakhi predicts from the Holy Scriptures cruel battles in Judda.s? Jews and Christians predicted the appearance of the Prophet'f and it was Jews and Christians who knew the exact date of his death: two Jewish scholars from Yemen informed Jarlr b. 'Abdallah al-Bajali on the day of the death of the Prophet about the sad event. 59 A monk could fix precisely the date of the death of the Prophet for Ka'b b. 'Adiyy according to what he found in his Book.6o A Jew from 'Uman informed 'Amr b. al-'A~ on the day of the death of the Prophet about this; 'Amr recorded the date, checked it later and found it accurate.s! The opinion that the Holy Books of Jews and Christians include information about the life and actions of prophets of the period preceding Islam, about the Prophet and the fate of his community and the events which will occur became widely accepted.v- It was further a common belief that the contents of the Qur'an are included in the Books of the prophets preceding Muhammad.cThe Qur'an, on the other hand, includes the contents of the Books revealed to the earlier prophets. "What is contained in the Qur'an is contained in the earlier Books", formulates it al-Suyutl.e+ Nu'ayrn b. Hammad, op. cit., fol. 56a-b, 57a-b, 58b, (SOb, 1b. 6 Ibid., fols. 34b, 61b, 62a, 63a-b, 65a-b, 69b, 71a-b, 72a-b. 56 Ibid., fols. 74a-b, 81a. 57 Al-Fiikihi, Ta'rikh Makka, Leiden, Or. 463, fol. 414a. 58 See e.g, al-Nuwayri, op. cit., XVI, 136, 143, 149-153; al-Haythami, al-Ni'ma l-kubra (l;Ialab [n.d.]), pp. 28-29, 52-53, 62. 59 Ibn Kathir, al-Biddya wa-l-nihdya, Y, 278. 60 Ibid., Y, 278-279. 61 Ibn Hubaysh, al-Maghdzi, Ms. Leiden, Or. 343, p, 24. 62 See al-Suyuti, al-Hiiwi, II, 283: ... wa-waradat al-iithdru aydan bi-anna lldha bayyana li-anbiyd'ihi fi kutubihim jami'a md huwa wiiqi'un tt hddhihi l-ummati min ahdiithin wa-fitanin wa-akhbdri khulafa'iha wa-muliikihd ... And see 'Abd al-Jabbar, Tathbit dald'ili l-nubuwwa, ed. 'Abd aI-Karim 'Uthmiin (Beirut, 1966-68), II, 413: innamd lam yatammanau I-mauta li-anna l-yahiida wa-l-nasdrii kanu yu'miniina bi-miisd wa-ghayrihi mimman kana yadda'i l-nubuwwata, . wa-qad akhbara ha'ula'i fi kutubihim bi-nubuwwati muhammadin (s) fa-lam yuqdimii 'ala l-tamanni li-hiidhii . 63 Al-Suyutl, al-Hiiwt, II, 284: wa-qad u'turida 'alayya fi hddhd l-tariqi bi-annahu yalzamu 'alayhi an yakima kullu rna tt l-qur'iini mudammanan fl jami'i l-kutubi l-sabiqati; wa-aqidu: la mdni'a min dhalika, bal dallat al-adillatu 'ala thubiai hddhii l-lazimi ... 64 Ibid., II, 285: ... wa-qad nassa 'ala hddhii bi-t aynihi l-imdmu abu hanifata haythu stadalla bi-hddhihi l-ayati 'ala jawiizi qirii'ati l-qur'iini bi-ghayri l-lisiini l-'arabiyyi, wa-qdla; inna 1qur'iina mudammanun It l-kutubi l-siibiqati, wa-hiya bi-ghayri l-lisiini l-'arabi, akhdhan bihadhihi l-dyati (i.e. Siiraxxvi, 197-98), wa-mimmd yashhadu bi-dhdlika wasfuhu la'ala li-l54 55 225 The idea of identity of contents led consequently to the identification of some passages of the Holy Books with those of the Qur'an. The beginning of the Torah is identical with the beginning of Siirat al-An'iim, the end of the Torah is identical with the end of Siirat Hud.65 The Siirat Ya Sin is called in the Torah al-Mu'amma/o God urged Moses to read the verse of the Throne (Sura ii 256) after every prayer and mentioned the reward for this reading.s? Muhammad b. Ka'b al-Qurazi could identify a quotation from some Holy Books mentioned by Abu Sa'Id al-MaqburI with Sura ii 204.68 The first sentence in the Torah was Sura vi 152: "Say: Come, I will recite what your Lord has forbidden you ... etc.69 "Hiidhd" in Sura lxxxvii, 18: inna hddhd lafi l-suhufi l-iild, suhufi ibrdhima wa-miisii was interpreted as referring to the whole sura; the whole sura, the commentators maintained, was included in the Holy Books of the earlier prophets.v Another tradition states explicitly that the sura was copied from the Books of Moses and Abraham."t Some commentators tried to limit the extent of inna hddhii ... to some verses (ayat) of the sura.72 The Prophet is said to have given an utterance about the suhuf of Ibrahim and Musa: the suhuf of Ibrahim were proverbs, the suhuf of Musa were exempla ('ibar).73 Quotations from these suhuf are in fact uttered by the Prophet.IA very early compilation containing wise sayings, stories and exhortations of Ibrahim, Musa, Ayyub, Dawud, Sulayman, 'Isa, Yahya b. Zakariyya and Luqman is the Kitiib al-mawii'iz of AbU 'Ubayd al-Qasim b. Sallam (d. 224).75 The numerous traditions, sayings and stories, provided with chains of isndd and recorded by one of the greatest scholars of the second century of the Hijra, attest that in this period knowledge of Jewish and Christian tradition qur'iini yadayhi 'iddati mawiidi'a bi-annahu musaddiqun (text vowelled: rnusaddaqun) li-ma bayna min al-kutubi; fa-lau-ld anna rna fihi maujiidun fihii lam yasihha hiidlui l-wasfu ... 65 Abu Nu'aym, op, cit., V, 378. 66 Al-Suyuti, al-La'iili al-masnira, I, 234. 67 Al-Suyuti, al-La' ali al-masnu:a, I, 232-233; idem, al- Durr al-manthur, I, 325; Ibn Kathtr, Tafsir, I, 546. 68 Al-Tabarl, Tafslr, IV, 231-232, nos. 3964-65; al-Suyiitl, al-Durr, I, 238. 69 Al-Mausill, Ghdyat al-wasii'il ila ma'rifati l-awd'il, Ms. Cambridge Qq. 33, fol. 41a; al-Tabari, Tafsir, XII, 227, no. 14157 (and see nos. 14158-59); Abu Nu'ayrn, op. cit., V, 383. 70 Al-Shaukanl, Pat/:l al-qadir (Cairo, 1383/1964), V, 427; al-Suyiitl, al-Durr, VI, 341. 71 Al-Suyutl, al-Durr, VI, 341; al-Shaukant, Fatk al-qadir, V, 427: nusikhat hddhihi 1suratu min suhufi ibrdhlma wa-miisii; Cf. al-Suyuti, al-Hdwi, II, 285: hiidhihi l-siiratu fi suhufi ibriihima wa-miisii; al-Qurtubl, Tafsir, XX, 24: inna hddha ... qiila: hiidhihi l-silratu. 72 Al-Suyutl, al-Durr, VI, 341; al-Qurtubl, Tafsir, XX, 24: min qaulihi qad aflaha i1a dkhiri l-siirati : Ibn Kathlr, Tafsir, VII, 273. 73 Al-Suyiitl, al-Durr, VI, 341. 74 Ibid. 75 It M~. Hebrew University, Collection Yahuda, Ar. 95. 226 If addithii 'an bani isrd'ila was widely current and was without serious opposition incorporated into the Muslim religious tradition. "It is written in the Torah", says Khaythama b. 'Abd al-Rahman, "0 man, exert yourself in My service and I shall fill up your heart with sufficiency and I shall supply your want; but if you do not do it, I shall make your heart busy and shall not supply your wants. "76 "God revealed to Ibrahim," Wahb b. Munabbih reports, "0 king who undergoes trials, I did not send you in order to collect the goods of this world, nor to erect buildings; I sent you in order to answer on My behalf the call of the oppressed, because I shall not drive it back, even if it comes from an unbeliever."77 This utterance is recorded by al-Suyuti as a hadith.t» Ka'b quotes from the Torah, according to the early Jdmi' of Ibn Wahb, a commandment to obey one's parents.I? A saying about the disobedience of sons to their fathers is transmitted by Ka'b from the "Book of God."8o Ka'b asserts that the invocation of 'Abdallah b. 'Amr in connection with augury is found in the Torah.s! From the Torah Ka'b also quotes a saying about the contemptous attitude towards the wise on the part of his own people.e? The final sentence in the Torah, says Ka'b, is: al-hamdu li-lldhi lladhi lam yattakhidh waladan wa-lam yakun lahu sharikun Ii l-mulki.s» Maymiin b. Mihran states that on the Tablets of Moses was written: "Do not covet the possessions of your neighbour, nor his wife."84 The Chidren of Israel asked Moses to choose for them a sentence of the Torah, which they could learn by heart. He said: "In the same way you would like people to treat you, treat them." Al-Zamakhsharl remarks: "This phrase is the one chosen best from the Torah."85 Sa'Id b. abl HilaI86 records two commandments in the Tablets of Moses written by God on the tablets "with His own hand" and His injunction: "Like for the people what you like for yourself and dislike for them what you dislike for yourself. "87 In the first tablets given to Moses by God there was written: "Thank Me and thank your parents, then I shall keep you from danger of decay and I shall 76 AbU 'Ubayd, op. cit., f. 9b; al-Majlisl, op. cit., XIII, 357, I. I (new ed.); al-'Amili, alJawdhir al-saniyya, al-Najaf 1384/1964, p. 48. 77 Abu 'Ubayd, op. cit., fol. 6b; Ibn Qutayba, 'Uyiin al-akhbdr (Cairo, 1346/1928), II, 263. 78 Al-Durr, VI, 341. 79 Ibn Wahb, Jiimi'; ed. J. David Weill (Cairo, 1939), p. 12, I. 11. 80 Ibid., page 11, I. 10. 81 Ibid., page 98, I. 4. 82 'Abd al-Jabbar al-Khaulanl, Ta'rikb Diirayyd, ed. Sa'id al-Afghanl (Damascus, 1369/ 1950), p, 107. 83 Abu Nu'ayrn, op. cit., VI, 30. 84 Abu 'Ubayd, op. cit., fol. 9b, 1. 9. 85 Al-Zamakhsharl, Rabi' al-abriir, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 6511, fol. 132b, infra. 86 See on him Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-tahdhib, IV, 94, no. 159. 87 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., page 20, I. 18. 227 lengthen your life and I shall give you a good life and transfer you into a better one."88 Tha'laba b. abl Malik89 says that 'Umar invited Jewish scholars and asked them to discuss (religious subjects - K). With them came Tha'laba's father, Abu Malik, who was a Jewish convert to Islam.w He came with a book, opened it and put his hand on a passage of it. When he lifted his hand and the Jewish scholars read: "he who shows filial piety to his father, God will lengthen his life" they admitted that it was revealed by God. People did not know it until that day.91 AI-Tha'iabi records the Ten Commandments revealed to Moses.92 Al-Nuwayri quotes al-Tha'Iabt; he remarks that God revealed to the Prophet the contents of the Ten Commandments in eighteen verses of the Qur'an, which he records.v' The maxim that as a part of filial piety one has to be beneficient to the friends of one's father after his death is quoted from the Torah.P+ Afaqih quoted from the Torah: "Woe to the man who sins, then asks forgiveness from Me ... "95 "In the Torah it is written", a Shi'i tradition says, "0 man, remember Me when you are angry, then I shall remember you when I am angry and I shall not annihilate you among those whom I shall annihilate; if you are unjustly treated be satisfied with My help to you, as My help is better for you than your help for yourself."96 "In the Torah it is written: he who sells landed property or (rights on) water not investing the sum gained in land or water (rights), the money (gained) will be squandered."97 It may be remarked that a similar tradition is reported on the authority of the Prophet: fa biiraka lldhu fi thamani ardin au ddrin Iii yuj'alu Ii ardin au darin.98 Some quotations from the Gospel and "other Books" are transmitted by Thaur b. Yazid.P? He read in the tauriit that Jesus said to the Apostles: Converse much with God, converse with people a little". They asked: "How should we converse with God"? He said: "Be in solitude with Him in your invocations and supplications",lOO Ka'b states that the well 88 AI-Majlisi, 90 91 92 89 See on him Ibn Hajar, op. cit., XIII, 358, no. 63. al-Isdba, I, 209, no, 948; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, VI, 169, no. 998. Ibn Wahb, op. cit., page 15, ll. 9-14. Qisas al-anbiyd'; p. 270. OPt cit., I, 212, no. 277 Nihdyat al-arab, XIII, 215-217. 94 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., page 14, ll. 14-15; cf. al-Sulami, Adab al-suhba (JerusaJem, 1954), p. 83, nos. 248-249 (and see ibid., the references of the editor). 95 Ibn Abi l-Dunya, Kit. al-tauba, Ms. Chester Beatty, 3863, fo1. 20b. 96 AI-Majlisi, op. cit., XIII, 358, no. 66. 97 AI-Majlisi, op. cit., XIII, 360, 73. 98 Mughultay, al-Zahr al-bdsim, Leiden Or. 370, fol. 120b; al-Tabari, al-Muntakhab min dhay/i l-mudhayyal (Cairo, 1358/1939), p. 59. 99 See on him Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-tahdhib, II, 33, no. 57. 100 Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., VI, 94. 93 228 Haddithii 'an bam isra'i/a of Zamzam is mentioned in "some Books."lOl "I found in the Torah", states Ka'b, that he who prays the five prayers in the mosque of Mecca (al-masjid al-bariim) God will record for him (the reward of) twelve million and five hundred thousand prayers.102 Even the verse of al-Hutay'a man yaf'al al-khayra Iii ya'dam jawiiziyahu: Iii yadhhabu I-'urfu bayna lldhi wa-l-ndsi was stated by Ka'b to be a sentence from the Torah.103 Additional quotations "from the Torah" could easily be muitiplied.l04 Only few of these quotations are in fact derived from that source. 105The majority of the flow of these quotations was derived from popular Jewish and Christian stories, legends, wise sayings and traditions which were introduced by Jewish and Christian converts to Islam and gained wide popularity. The Muslim scholars were however aware of the fact that the expressions "I found in the Torah", "it is written in the Torah", "it is recorded in the Torah" do not necessarily refer to the Pentateuch, or even to the Bible. Al-Jahiz remarks that the expression "maktiibun fi l-taurdti" as told on the authority of Ka'b refers in fact to things found in the Scriptures of the Jews like the books of the prophets and the books of Salomon. 106In a report given by Abu I-Aswad107 the Ra's al-Jdlia explains thst Ka'b lied when he said that his predictions were derived from the Torah; the Torah is a Book like the Qur'an ; Ka'b was in fact quoting from the books of the prophets and their companions, exactly as the Muslims narrate stories of the Prophet and his Companions.108 The sources are often referred to in a vague manner: "maktiibun fi I-kutubi", "qara'tufi ba'ifi I-kutubi", ''fi kitdbi lliihi";109 often the sources are not mentioned at all. 101 102 Al-Fakihl, op. cit., fol. 342a. Ibid., fol. 453a. 103 Usama b. Munqidh, Lubab al-iiddb, ed. Ahmad Muh. Shakir (Cairo, 1353/1935), p. 424 ult.; and see al-Hutay'a, Diwdn, ed. Nu'rnan Amtn Tiihii (Cairo, 1378/1958), pp, 291-292. 104 See e.g. al-Dhahabl, al-i Uluww li-l-t aliyy I-ghaffar, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muh. 'Uthman (Cairo, 1388/1968),p. 95; AbU Nu'aym, op. cit., IV, 48,38,58; al-Suyutl, al-Durr, IV, 182; Ibn Abi l-Dunya, al-Ishriif, fol. 76a-b; al-Majlisi, op, cit., XIII, 331, 342, 348, 357, 340; al-Tust, Amdli (al-Najaf, 1384/1964), I, 233; al-'Amili, al-Kashkid, ed. Tahir Ahmad alZawl (Cairo, 1380/1961), II, 132, 153. lOS See J. GoIdziher, "Uber Bibelcitate in muhammedanischen Schriften," ZATW XIII (1893), pp. 315-316. 106 Al Hayawiin, ed. 'Abd al-Salam Hiiriin (Cairo, 1385/1966),IV, 202-203. 107 See on him Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-tahdhib, IX, 307, no. 506. 108 Ibn Hajar, al Isdba, V, 324. 109 See e.g, Abu 'Ubayd, op. cit., fol. 16b; Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., IV, 27, 32, 33, 57; VI 16,55. 229 From "Hikmat ai Diiwiid" Abu 'Ubayd quotes the following passage: "It is incumbent upon a wise man not to be neglectful about four hours: an hour in which he exerts himself for his God, an hour in which "he makes accounts for his soul", an hour in which he talks with his friends who speak to him frankly about his vices and bad behaviour and an hour devoted to his lawful pleasures; this (latter) hour is a recreation for his heart and should help him to carry out the obligations of the three (former) hours. It is incumbent upon a wise man to know his time and to set about his matters. It is incumbent upon a wise man to set out on his journey with provision taken only for his life to come, approving the means of Iife and lawful pleasure" .110 In some other sources these utterances are quoted from the Suhuf Ibrdhim.s+) From the /fikmat dl Ddwiid the following saying is quoted: "Good health is a hidden good".112 Some quotations from Hikmat iii Ddwiid are given by al-'Amili113 and al-MajlisI.114 Abu Nu'aym records some quotations from "Mas' alat Diiwiid" .115 Al-'Amili quotes "Akhbiir Diiwiid" twice.1I6 The Psalms of David seem to have been in wide circulation. Qatada and RabI' b. Anas state that the Zabiir contains only invocations and praises of God; there are no commandments, no rules of penaI-Iaw, no statements about what is lawful or forbidden. 117 The first verses of the Psalms are often quoted. Two translations of these verses are recorded by aI-SuyutI,118 a third one by Ibn AbI l-Dunya, I 19 Ibn Tawus copies from the zabiir the following suwar: 110 Al-Mawa'iz, fol. lOb; cf. al-Suyuti, al-Durr, IV, 189, 1. 10; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi- Murjil; auhdm, I, 457 tfi hikmati al dawilda); Ibn Kathrr, al-Biddya wa-l-nihdya, II, 15 (fi hikmati al-da'uda). III Al-Majlisl, op. cit., XII, 71; al-Qurtubi, Tafsir, XX, 25; al-Suyutt, al-Durr, VI, 341. 112 Ibn Abi l-Dunyzr, al-Ishriif, fol. 93a (al-'afiyatu l-mulku I-khafiyyu). 113 Al-Jawiihir al-saniyya, p. 90, I. 3 from bottom, p. 95. 114 Bihar, XIV, 36, 41 (new ed.). 115 Al-Hilya, VI, 56-57; and see Ibn Kathir, al-Biddya wa-l-nihiiya, II, 14 inf. 116 Al-Jawdhir al-saniyya, p, 94. 117 Al-Suyiitl, al-Durr, IV, 188. 118 Ibid., IV, 188: a ... tuba Ii-rajulin fa yasluku tariqa l-khattii'tna wa-Iam yujdlis al-battiilina wa yastaqimu 'ala 'ibiidati rabbihi 'azza wa jalla, fa mathaluhu ka mathali shajaratin niibitatin 'ala siiqiyatin ld taziilu fihd l-mti'u yafdulu thamaruhii ft zamdni l-thimiiri wa ta tazdlu khadrti'a fi ghayri zamdni l-thimdri; (cf. Abii Nu'aym, op. cit., IV, 62 penult.), p. 189; b ... tuba Ii-man lam yasluk sabila I-athamati wa-Iam yujdlis al-khattii'ina wa-Iam yafi' tt hammi l-mustahzi'ina wa-Iakinna hammahu sunnatu Ilahi wa-iyyiihii yata'allamu bi-I-Iayli wa-l-nahari, mathaluhu mathalu shajaratin tanbutu 'ala shattin tu'ta thamaratahii fi IJiniha wa-ld yataniitharu min waraqihii shay' un, wa-kullu 'amalihi bi-amri, laysa dhalika mithla 'amalt l-mundfiqin ... 119 Kitiib al-tauba, Chester Beatty, 3863, fol. 15b: sal/am b. miskin: sa'altu nasriiniyyan md awwalu l-zabiiri, qdla: tilba Ii-tabdin lam yasluk sabila I-athamati wa-lam yujdlis I-mustahzi'ina wa-I-khiiti'Inai fa-dhakartu dhiilika li-miiliki bni dinarin fa-qdla: sadaqa. 230 lfaddithii 'an bani isrd'ila 2, 10, 17,23,30, 36,46,47,65,67,68,71,84, 100.120The Iast thirty Iines of the zabUr121 and a short passage from this source are given by Wahb.122 These translations are however not accurate; sometimes no similarity with the text can be detected. The wise sayings attributed to Salomon123 can be traced to Ecclesiastes and Proverbs. 124 Al-Muhasibi quotes from Hikmat 'jsii a saying about the love for worldly goods125 and a saying from Risdldt 'jsa.126 Lengthy chapters from $abii'ij Idris and Sunan Idris are recorded by Ibn Tawus.127 It would be needless to add quotations from the prophets Iike Isaiah, Jeremiah, Habaquq or from the Injil of Jesus. The compilation of Abu 'Vbayd may serve as the best proof for the flow of Jewish and Christian traditions which poured into Muslim circles and were gladly taken up by Muslim scholars. Reading the Torah was made lawful by the Prophet's permission. 'Abdallah b. 'Amr b. a1-'A~ told the Prophet about his dream. He saw that he had on one of his fingers honey and on the other one butter. The Prophet explained the dream and said: "You will read the two Books: the Torah and the Furqan (i.e. the Qur'an - K)". He read in fact both these Books.128 This tradition, transmitted by Ibn Lahi'a,129 was vehemently attacked by al-Dhahabi in the eighth century AH: nobody was allowed to read the Torah after the Qur'an had been revealed. The Torah, argues al-Dhahabi, had been changed and tampered with; truth and falsehood are mixed in this book. It is permissible to read this book for one purpose only: to answer the Jews.130 But opinions about the study of the Torah were quite different in the first century. Ibn 120 Sa'd al-suud (al-Najaf, 1369/1950), pp. 47-63; a great part of the quotations of Ibn Tawus were copied by al-Majlisi, op. cit., XIV, 43--48; and see ibid., pp. 36-37. 121 Abu Nu'aym, op. cit., IV, 46-47. 122 Ibid., IV, 67 inf. 123 Usama b. Munqidh, op. cit., p. 444: "wa-min kaldmi sulaymiina bni diiwuda 'alayhi l-saldm": Proverbs xxvii 1, 2, 10; xxix 19; Ecclesiastes xi 1. A'mdl al-qulub wa-l-jawdrih, ed. 'Abd al-Qadir Ahmad 'Ata (Cairo, 1969), p. 45. 126 Ibid., p. 82. 127 Sa'd al-su'ud, pp, 32--40; cf. al-Majlisi, op. cit., XI, 120-121, 151-152, 269, 282-283 (newed.). 128 Al-Dhahabt, Ta'rikh al-isldm (Cairo, 1367), III, 38; Abu l-Mahasin Yiisuf b. Musii al-Hanaft, al-Mu'tasar min al-mukhtasar (Hyderabad, 1362), II, 265; cf. al-Mausili, Ghiiyat al-wasii'il, Ms. Cambridge Qq 33 (10) fol. 42 inf. 129 See on him Ibn Kathlr, al-Bidiiya, VI, 242 ult. (ga'i); al-Tibrizl, Mishkiit al-masdbtb (Karachi, 1350), p. 160, I. 5 (ga'if); al-Dhahabl, Mizdn al-i'tidiil, I, 479, ult.; ibid., III, 267 (wa-bnu lahi'ata mimman qad tabarra'nd min 'uhdatihi); ibid., II, 475--483, no. 4530; al-Fasawt. op. cit., fol. 84a, inf.; Mughultay, al-Zahr al-bdsim, Ms. Leiden, Or. 370, fol. 116a. 130 Siyar a'lam al-nubala', ed. As'ad Talas (Cairo, 1962), III, 57. 124 125 231 Sa'd records a story about 'Amir b. 'Abd Qays and Ka'b sitting in a mosque: Ka'b read the Torah and explained some interesting passages to 'Amir.131 Ab111-Jald al-Jauni used to read the Qur'an and the Torah. He used to celebrate each conclusion of reading of the Torah (he read it during six days) summoning people (for this purpose) and used to quote a saying that Mercy descends at each conclusion of the reading of the Torah.132 sun tradition explicitly stressed the link between the Torah and the true knowledge of the Prophet, 'Ali and the succeeding Imams. The Tablets of Moses reached the Prophet and he handed them over to 'Ali,133 The Tablets of Moses, the Gospel, the $ubuf Ibrahim and the Zabiir are in the possession of the Shi'I Imams.134 The White Jafr contains the Torah, the GospeI, the Zabiir and the first Books of God. 135 The idea that there was identity of contents between Jewish revelation and Isiam was followed by the idea which established identity of fate between these two peoples. Ibn 'Abbas stated that everything which happened among the Children of Israel will happen to the Muslim community. 136The Children of Israel were righteous until the sons of their captive women grew up. They championed ra'y137 and therefore went astray and led other people astray, said the Prophet. 138This tradition is recorded by al-Fasawi and after it comes the following remark: "Sufyan said: 'We examined it and found that the first person to champion ra'y in Medina was Rabi'a, in Kufa Abu Hanifa, in Basra al-Battl; they were the sons of captive women'."139 The Prophet predicted that the Muslim community would follow a path identical with that of the Children of Israel and of the Christians.140 These points of resemblance refer, of course, to pejorative aspects of Jewish history; they are used to point out dangers which the Muslim community is facing. Sometimes, however, the identification is Jone in a laudatory spirit. Tabaqdt, VII, 110. Ibid., VII, 222. 133 AI-Majlisi, op. cit., XIII, 225 (new ed.); and see al-Saffar al-Qumml, Basii'ir al-darajiit, ([n.p.], 1285), pp. 37-38 sup.; al-'Ayyashi, op, cit., Ms. India Office 4153, fol. 127b. 134 Al-Majlisl, op. cit., XXVI, 180-189 (new ed.). 135 Ibid., XXVI, 18. 136 Nu'aym b. Hammad, op. cit., fo1. 4b: lam yakun [i bani isrii'ila shay'un ilia wa-huwa [ikum kii'inun. 137 Cf. "Ashab al-Ra'y", EI2 (Schacht). 138 Ibn Majah, Sunan (Cairo, 1349), 1, 28; al-Bayhaqi, Ma'rifat al-sunan, I, 110 (and see the references of the editor). 139 AI-Ma'ri/a wa-l-ta'rikh, fo1. 271a. 140 Al-Muttaqi I-Hindi, Kanz, XI, 123, nos. 555-556; Ibn al-Athrr, al-Nihdya, IV, 28; Ibn Tawas, Sa'd, pp. 64, 65, 116,1. 3; al-'Ayyashi, op. cit., Ms. foI. 93a-b; and see M. TaJbi, "Les Bida", Studia Islamica, XII, 50. 131 132 232 lJaddithii 'an bani isra'i/a The Aus and the Khazraj, says a tradition recorded by Ibn Ishaq, are descendents of four hundred scholars from among the Children of Israel, left by Tubba' in Medina. Abu Ayyub was the descendant of the scholar whom Tubba' entrusted with the keeping of the letter for the Prophet; Abu Ayyub indeed handed it over to the Prophet, 141A late compilation recording the story remarks that this genealogy of the An~ar is a Jewish plot.142 The Prophet states, according to a ShI'I tradition, that his name is Ahmad and Isra'Il and that the obligations Iaid by God upon Isra'Il are incumbent on him as well.l43 By Children of Israel the ('Alid - K) Al Muhammad are meant.t+t The 'Alids in the Umayyad period complained that they were "like the Al Musii in the time of Al Fir'aun".145 Ibn Tawas records many passages from the Torah about Aaron146 in order to stress the importance of the utterance of the Prophet, that 'All is in relation to the Prophet in the position of Aaron in relation to Moses.t-? The role of 'Ali as wa~iyy in relation to the Prophet corresponds to the role of Joshua b. Nun in relation to Moses.148 But the feeling of affinity or identity which Muslims experienced with regard to the righteous from among the Children of Israel did not detract from the latter's faults, sins and vices. The sunna of the Children of Israel should not be followed. In many traditions the Faithful are warned of these sunan and ordered to act contrary to them.149 Even their strictness in observing religious rites was criticized. "Do not be like the Children of Israel; having been strict with themselves, God imposed strictness on them."150 141 AI-Samhiidi, Wafa' al-wafd, ed. MuI;!.Muhyl l-Dln 'Abd al-Hamld (Cairo, 1374/1955), I, 188-189; Mughultay, op. cit., fol. 194a; Ibn Zuhayra, al-Jiimi' al-lattf, (Cairo, 1357/1958), pp. 51-54; aI-SaliQ.i, al-Sira al-shiimiya, Ms. Atif 1753, fol. 69a. 142 'Abd al-Hafiz b. 'Uthman al-Qari' al-Ta'if], Jala' al-quliib wa-kashf al-kurub bi-mandqib abi ayyiib, (Istanbul, 1298), pp. 14-15. 143 AI.'Ayyashi, op. cit., I, 44, no. 45 (and see ibid., note 6). 144 Ibid., I, 44, nos. 43, 44 (refers to Siira ii 48). 145 Furat, Tafslr (al-Najaf [n.d.]), p, 47, I. 1. 146 Sa'd al-su'iid, pp. 43-46; Ex. xxix 5, 27,31,44,13; Nurn. xvii 17. 147 Sa'd al-su'iid, pp. 43-46 (and see p. 43: t'lam anna qaula l-nabiyyi (~) li-mauliind 'aliyyi bni abi talibin ('a) anta minnt bi-manzilati hiiruna min musa yashtamilu 'alii kh~ii'i~a 'azimatin nabwi l-khiliifati; wa-qad wajadtu fi l-tauriiti min mandzili hiirUna min masa ma yadtqu mii qasadndhu bi-fusidi hadha l-kitiibt mimmd yantafi'u bi-ma'rifatihii dhawi; (text: dhawi) I-albabi, 148 149 Furat, op. cit., pp. 65-68. Furat, op. cit., p. 42: wa-ld ta'khudhu sunnata bani isrii'tla kadhdhabil anbiyii'ahum wa-qatalii ahla baytihim. 150 AI.'Amm, al-Kashkiil, I, 221: inna lliiha yuhibbu an yu'khadha bi-rukhasihi kamii yuhibbu an yu'khadha bi-razd'imihi, fa- qbalu rukhasa Iliihi wa-ld takunu ka-bant isra'il btna shaddadii 'ala anfusihim fa-shaddada lliihu 'alayhim; and see Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, 1,193-194; cf. Samau'a\ la-Maghribl, If/;lam al-yahud, ed. M. Perlmann (New York, 1964), pp. 71-85. 233 III Contrary to the permission to transmit traditions about the Children of Israel concerning their history or stories about their prophets and saints, the early sources point clearly to the tendency of the orthodox circles to prevent the Faithful from learning or copying the Holy Scriptures of the People of the Book, and especially of legal chapters or chapters concerning the tenets of faith. 'Umar, says a tradition, walked past a Jew from Qurayza and asked him to copy for him summary chapters from the Torah. When he came to the Prophet and begged his permission to read these chapters, the face of the Prophet became changed (scil, with anger - K). 'Umar was frightened by this and exclaimed: "I am satisfied by Allah as God, by Islam as religion and by Muhammad as Prophet." When the rage of the Prophet had gone, he remarked: "I swear by Him Who keeps in His hand the soul of Muhammad: were Moses among you and if you followed him, leaving me, you would have gone astray; you are my lot among the peoples and I am your lot among the prophets" .151 It is interesting to note that the Jew in the story is referred to in a favourable manner: marartu bi-akhin li min qurayzata.tst It is also of interest that the Prophet emphasizes the adherence of Moses to his faith. According to a tradition on the authority of Anas, the Prophet met Jesus153 and al-Dhahabi considered Jesus as one of the Companions of the Prophet.154 An utterance of the Prophet similar to the one about Moses is recorded in the story of Hafsa. She brought to the Prophet a shoulder-bone on which was written the story of Joseph. The Prophet became angry, the colour of his face changed and he said: "Were Joseph to come while I am amongst you and were you to follow him, you would have gone astray" .155 Slightly different is the utterance of the Prophet as recorded in another tradition. 'Umar asked the Prophet whether he would be permitted to write down traditions (al;ziidith) heard from Jews, by which he was pleased. The 151 Al-Jiimi'; fol. 60a; 'Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, fol. 114a; al-Suyutl, al-Durr, II, 48; cf. another version of this tradition 'Abd al-Razzaq, op. cit., fol. 114a with the utterance: innamd bu'ithtu fatiJ.zan wa-khdtaman wa-u'titu jawdmi'a l-kalimi wa-fawiitihahu wa-khtusira lt l-hadithu ikhtisiiran. And see AbU Da'ud, Mariisil (Cairo, 1310), p, 48; al-Khatib al-Baghdadt, Taqyid, p, 52. 152 See another version of this tradition in Muttaqi al-Hindi's Kanz, I, 334, no. 1629: 'Umar visited Khaybar and was pleased by some sayings of a Jew. The Jew dictated the sayings to 'Umar upon his request and 'Umar wrote them down on a skin which he brought to the Prophet. When 'Umar read it to the Prophet, he became angry and erased the writing. He said: "Do not follow these people because they got confused". 153 Al-Suytitl, al-Hiiwi, II, 288. 154 Ibid., p. 289, sup. 155 Ma'mar b. Rashid, al-Jdmi", fol. 133b; 'Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, fol. 114a. 234 Haddithii 'an bam isra'ila Prophet said: "Are you following the Jews and Christians in their confusion? I brought it (i.e. the religion, or the Qur'an - K) white and pure; if Moses were alive he would have to follow me",156 A special dya was revealed in connection with this problem. Some Muslims, the tradition asserts, brought to the Prophet certain books which they had copied from the Jews. The Prophet said: "It is an error grave enough when people prefer a thing brought by someone else to another people over that which their own Prophet brought to them". Then iiya 51 of Sura 29 was revealed: a-wa-lam yakfihim anna anzalnd 'alayka l-kitiiba yutlii 'alayhim ... etc. 157The Prophet finally gave his decisive utterance when asked by 'Umar about studying the Torah: "Do not learn the Torah, you have to learn what has been revealed to you (i.e. the Qur'an - K) and believe in it",158 In fact 'Umar forbade copying or reading the Books of Jews and Christians. According to a tradition a man came to 'Umar and informed him about a wonderful book which he had found in Mada'in when the Muslims had conquered the city. "Is it from the Book of Allah"? (i.e. the Qur'an - K) 'Umar asked. "No", said the man. 'Umar began to beat him with his whip, reciting the first four dyas from Siirat Yiisuf and said: "What caused the peoples who lived before you to perish was that they devoted themselves to the study of books of their scholars and bishops and abandoned the Torah and the Gospel until those two Books became effaced and knowledge of them disappeared",159 In another story a similar case is told. 'Alqama and al-Aswad came to Ibn Mas'ud and showed him a scroll ($abifa) containing a story which they found pleasing. 'Abdallah b. Mas'ud ordered to efface the script. "These hearts are vessels (of knowledge - K); engage them with the Qur'an, not with anything else", he said,16o 'Umar seems to have been especially concerned about the Book of Daniel. The book is said to have been found in a grave in Tustar when the Muslims conquered the city. It is said to have been Daniel's grave,161 The book was brought to 'Umar and he sent it to Ka'b who rendered it into Arabic. It is 156 Al-Zamakhshart, al-Fii'iq, ed. 'Ali Muh. al-Bijawi - Muh, Abu l-Fadl Ibrahim (Cairo, 1367/1948), III, 218; Abu 'Ubayd, Ghartb al-hadith (Hyderabad, 1385/1966), III, 28-29; cf. Ibn al-Athir, al-Nihdya, s.v. h w k; al-Majlisi, op. cit., VIII, 211 (lithogr. ed.). 157 Al-Suyutl, Lubab al-nuqid (Cairo, 1373/1954), p. 170; al-Qurtubl, Tafslr, XIII, 355; Ibn Shahrashub, Mandqib al abi falib (al-Najaf, 1376/1956), 1,48; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Jiimi' baydn al-tllm, II, 40-41. 158 Al-Muttaql l-Hindl, op. cit., I, 333, no. 1627. 159 Ibid., I, 335, no. 1632. 160 Abu 'Ubayd, FarJa'il al-Qur'iin, Ms. Leiden, Or. 3056, fol. 4a-b. Abu 'Ubayd remarks: "We think that this scroll was taken from a man who belonged to the People of the Book, therefore 'Abdallah b. Mas'Iid disliked it". 161 See £12, s.v. "Daniyal" (G. Vajda). 235 said to have contained information about strifes (fitan) which will happen,162 Abu 1-'Aliya163 says about the book: "I was the first Arab to read this book the way I read the Qur'an." It contained, says Abu I-'Aliya, information about your history (siratukum) and your matters, your religion and the ways of your speech (lulziin kaldmikumy and what will happen in the future. 164When 'Umar was informed about a man who copied (or read) the Book of DanieI, he ordered that man to be brought into his presence, beat him with his whip until he promised to burn books of this kind and not to read them. 165 A saying from Kitiib Ddniydl is recorded by Hamd b. Muhammad aIKhattabi.166 A lengthy passage about the campaigns of the Sufyani is quoted from Kitdb Ddniyiil by AbU l-Husayn Ahmad b. Ja'far b. al-Munadi in his Kitdb al-maldhim and recorded by A significant passage from Kitiib Diiniydl is recorded by al-Majlisi. It contains predictions about weather during the year, crops, plagues and wars established according to the date of the first day of Muharramtxaturday, Sunday, Monday ... etc.) and the month in which the eclipse of the sun or the moon will occur. Al-Rawandi marks this material as stories of the type of maliil;zim.168 The Book of Daniel seems to have been read by Ka'b and the twenty Jewish scholars in their discourse in Jerusalem. Ka'b gave orders to throw this book, which he described as being "the Torah as revealed by God to Moses, unchanged and unaltered", into the sea of Tiberias. Ka'b feared that people might rely on it (khashitu an yuttakala 'ala mii fihii). When the man sent by Ka'b arrived at the middle of the sea, the waters parted so that he could see the bottom of the sea, and he threw the Book into the sea,169 There was, of course, the danger of the intentional changes and alterations of the Scriptures carried out by the People of the Book. This is reflected in a tradition about Ka'b. He brought a book, whose leaves were torn out, to 'Umar stating that it contained (chapters of) the Torah, and asked permission to Nu'aym b. Hammad, op. cit., fol. 4b (= Ms. Atif, fol. 3a). See on him Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VII, 112-117. 164 Al-Bayhaql, Kit. dala'it al-nubuwwa, Ms. Br. Mus., Or. 3013, fol. 65a; Ibn Kathtr, al-Bidaya wa-l-nihiiya, II, 40-41. 165 Al-Khatlb al-Baghdadl, Taqyid, p. 51; al-Muttaqt al-Hindt, op. cit., I, 332-333, no. 1626; ibid., 335-336, no. 1633; 'Abd al-Razzaq, op. cit., fol. 114a. 166 Kitiib al-iuzla (Cairo, 1352), p. 80. 167 Al-Tadhkira, ed. Ahmad Muh, Mursl (Cairo [n.d.]), pp. 610--611. 168 Bihiir aI-anwar, LVIII, 346-350 (new ed.). 169 Al-Dhahabl, Siyar a'ldm al-nubald', III, 323-325; and see idem., Ta'rikn al-isldm, III, 99-101, on the bottom of the sea of Tiberias are buried the Ark of the Covenant and the Staff of Moses; they will be raised on the Day of Judgement. See al-Nuwayrl, op. cit., XVI, 43. 162 163 236 Haddithii 'an bani isra'/la read it. 'Umar said: "If you know that the book contains the Torah revealed by God to Moses on Mount Sinai, read it day and night." 170 Ibn Kathir, quoting the traditions which forbid the consultation of scholars from among the People of the Book remarks: "These traditions serve as evidence that they made changes in the Holy Scriptures which they possess ( ... baddalii mii bi-aydihim min al-kutubi l-samiiwiyati), altered them and interpreted them in an improper way." They did not possess comprehensive knowledge of their Scriptures; in their translations into Arabic they made many errors and mistakes. Furthermore, they had bad intentions and erroneous views. One part of the Torah is manifest, publicly revealed, but a great part of it is hidden. The manifest parts of the Torah contain changes, alterations, erroneous expressions and elusive ideas. Ibn Kathir accuses Ka'b of transmitting traditions many of which are not worth the ink with which they are written, and some of which are false. 171"Some of the Isra'iliyyiit were invented by some of their zaniidiqa; some of them may be sound, but we do not need them: what is written in the Book of God (i.e. the Qur'an - K) is sufficient for us and we do not need to look for it in the remaining books (revealed) before it; neither God nor His Messenger caused us to lack their knowledge."I72 The same accusations of lies, alterations, changes and intentional misinterpretations are repeated by Ibn Kathir in the course of a section in which he records the traditions which forbid consultation of scholars from among the People of the Book. 173 Ibn al-Jauzi, the prolific author of the sixth century AH, expresses similar views. The stories concerning the early peoples and especially the Children of Israel rarely contain authentic accounts. The Muslim religious law (shar'), Ibn al-Jauzi says, is sufficient and the Prophet ordered 'Umar to discard certain passages from the Torah which he brought to him. Some stories of the Isra'tliyyat are absurd, like the story about David who sent Uri yah to be killed in order to marry his wife,174 The early sources mentioned in this paper bear evidence of the close contacts between Muslims, Jews and Christians at the end of the first century of the Hijra. The traditions recorded by Ma'mar b. Rashid in his Jiimi' can be estimated as going back to original sources of the end of the first century. The material of Abu 'Ubayd in his Mawii'i? seems to stem from the same 170 Abu 'Ubayd, Gharib al-hadith, IV, 262; al-Zamakhsharl, al-Fd'iq, I, 651; Ibn al-Athlr, al-Nihdya, II, 468, s.v. sh r m; J. Goldziher, "Ober Muh. Polemik gegen Ahl al-Kitab", ZDMG XXXII, 345 (read correctly: fa-qra'hii ana'a l-layli). 171 Ibn Kathir, al-Biddya wa-l-nihiiya, II, 132-134. 172 Ibn Kathir, Tafstr, IV, 282. 173 Ibid., V, 329-330. 174 Ibn al-Jauzi, Kit. al-qussd«, Ms. Leiden, Or. 988, fol. 20a. 237 period. The assumption of W. Montgomery Watt175 that the material of the Bible discussed above was directed in the first phase towards illiterate people with no knowledge of the Bible, can hardly be accepted. W. M. Watt takes it that the passage in Ibn 'Abd al-Barr's Jiimi: baydn al-'ilm, II, 40-43 about "Avoidance of information from Jews and Christians" suggests "that it belongs to the first phase" because "it envisages Muslims conversing with Jews and Christians, but not reading their books"; 176 but this argument is in fact untenable. The tradition recorded by al-Bukharti?? reports explicitly that "the Jews used to read the Torah in Hebrew and to interpret it to the people of Islam in Arabic." AI-Suddi reports that some Jews used to compile books, claiming that they are books revealed by God, and used to sell them at cheap prices to the Arabs. 178 The stories about books of Ahl al-Kitdb being copied by Muslims, quoted above and mentioned in the chapter of Ibn 'Abd al-Barr bear evidence that the contacts between Muslims and the People of the Book were not confined to mere consultation. Lastly it may be remarked that the title of the chapter is: Biib mukhtasar fi mutdla' ati kutubi ahli l-kitdbi wal-riwdyati 'anhum. It is plainly stated that the subject discussed in the chapter is the reading of books of the Ahl al-Kitiib and transmission of traditions on their authority, not merely conversing. W. M. Watt's doubts, as to "whether any of it (i.e. the traditions recorded by Ibn 'Abd al-Barr) had its present form at a still earlier period" are unfounded; as far as the "Jdmi" of Ma'mar and the "Musannaf " of 'Abd al-Razzaq are concerned, the traditions and their isndds are copied by Ibn 'Abd al-Barr with accuracy; this can be ascertained by comparing the material of Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr with the Mss. quoted in this paper. As already mentioned there was no serious opposition to the Jewish and Christian traditions transmitted by Jewish and Christians converts, in so far as they concorded with the views of orthodox Isiam. Opposition seems to have appeared in connection with those aspects of the Jewish and Christian tradition which may have some bearing on Muslim belief or practice. In such cases the motives are clear; the stories about the prohibition to copy the Scriptures of Ahl al-Kitiib seem to be connected with cases of this kind. This can be gauged from the tradition about a group of Jews who embraced IsIam, but asked the Prophet's permission to observe the Sabbath and to study the Torah at night. They were, of course, denied this permission. A verse of the Qur'an (Sura ii 208) was revealed about it.179 175 The Early Development of the Muslim Attitude to the Bible (Glasgow Univ. Oriental Society Transactions. XVI. 1955-1956, pp. 50-62. 176 Ibid., pp. 60--62. 177 AI.. al;zil;z $ (Cairo [n.d.l), VI, 25; Ibn Kathlr, Tafstr, I, 329. 178 Al-Suyutl, al-Durr al-manthiir, I, 83. 179 Al-Tabarl, Taftir, IV, 255-256, no. 4016; Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, I, 439-440; al-Suyutt, al-Durr, I, 271; al-Razt, Tafsir, V, 226. 238 Haddithii 'an bani isra'lla The orthodox solution was that a Muslim had to believe in the Torah and the Gospel, but not to observe the practices enjoined in these Books. The Prophet said: "Believe in the Torah, the Zabiir and the Evangel, but the Qur'an should suffice you."180 This formula, which breathes an air of compromise, enabled indeed the transmission of Jewish and Christian tradition. This tradition, licensed by the utterance haddithii 'an bani isrd'il became part and parcel of Muslim literature as is abundantly reflected in the literature of the tafsir, zuhd and adab.181 180 Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, I, 329-330: qdla rasidu lliihi: dminii bi-l-tauriiti wa-l-zabiiri wa-linjili wa-l-yasa'kumu l-qur'iinu, and comp. ibid.: innamd umirnd an nu'mina bt-l-taurati wa-linjili wa-Iii na'mala bi-md fihimd; and see al-Suyiltl, al-Durr, II, 225-226: Iii dina illd l-isldmu, wa-kitdbunii nasakha kulla kitdbin, wa-nabiyyund khatamu l-nabiyyina, wa-umirnd an na'mala bi-kitiibind wa-nu'mina bi-kitabikum. 181 I wish to thank Dr. M. Nadav and Mr. E. Wust of the National and University Library, Jerusalem; Dr. A. Sj. Koningsveld of the University Library of Leiden; the keepers and staff of the British Museum; Cambridge University Library; Chester Beatty Collection, Dublin; and the Siileymaniye, Istanbul, for granting me permission to peruse manuscripts and providing me with microfilms. 239