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Locust.pdf THE LOCUST'S WING: SOME NOTES ON LOCUSTS IN THE HADITH To Prof. Moshe Gil with esteem. The question whether one may eat locusts seems to have been a controversial issue already in the first period of Islam. In the following lines we shall attempt to examine the various opinions of the scholars of Islam, as reflected in the collections of hadith, fiqh and adab. Several traditions in the early collections of hadith relate that some of the Companions of the Prophet gave their tacit consent to consume locusts. The Companion of the Prophet, Abu Said al-KhudrIl is said to have seen his sons and his famil-y consuming locusts and did not tell them to desist. He himself, however, refrained from eating locusts. His wife Zaynab bint Ka'b b. 'Ujra2 assumed that he abstained from eating locusts because he considered them unclean3• Abu Huraya behaved in the same way, as attested by members of his family: he himself did not eat locusts, but did not forbid his family to eat them4• As to 'Umar, it is explicitly said that he ate locusts5• He explained that it is permitted to eat locusts because they are not being slaugthered. 'Umar indeed had a great liking to a locusts meal. Ibn 'Umar once saw his father with his mouth flowing with saliva. He asked him about it; 'Umar explained that he was longing for a meal of fried locusts6• In a tradition of Ibn Musayyib7 there is a fairly large number of Companions who used to eat locusts: he saw 'Umar, ~uhayb and Salmiin eating 1 D. anno 74 or 64 H; see on him: Ibn l:Iajar AL-'AsQALANI, al-/~aba fi tamyizi I-~al,!aba,ed. 'A. M. AL-BIJAwI, Cairo, 1970, III, 78-80, no. 3198. 2 See on her: Ibn l:Iajar AL-'ASQALANI, al·/~aba VII, 679, no. 11246; KHATIAB, Fatl,!u I·maliki /·ma'bUd, takmilatu I-manhali I· 'adhbi l-maurUd, sharI,! sunani I·imam abi dawud, RiyaQ, 1394/1974, IV, 346. 3 AL-BAYHAQI, al·Sunan al-kubra, Hyderabad, 1355, IX, 258; Ibn l:Iajar AL-'ASQALAM, al·Matalibu I· 'aliya bi-zawa'idi I·masanidi I·thamaniya, ed. 1:1. l-Ral,Jmlin ALA'ZAMl, Beirut, 1392, II, 312, no. 2341, and see M. COOK, Early Islamic Dietary Law, in JSAl,7 (1986), p. 267 (hereafter: COOK). 4 Ibn l:Iajar AL-'ASQALANI, al-Matalibu 1-'aliya, II, 312, no. 2340. 5 'Abd AL-RAZZAQ, a/-Mu~annaf, ed.l:I. l-Ral,Jmlin AL-A'?AMi, Beirut, 1391/1972, IV, 'Abdallah b. Ja'far b. Isi:laq b. 'Ali AL-MAUSILI Al,!adUh, MS. Hebrew University, Yahuda 409, fo!. 22 a ult.-22 b. sup.; Ibn l:Iajar AL-'AsQALANI, al·Matalibu 1-'aliya, II, 312, no. 2343. 7 See on him: Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, Beirut, 1374/1957, V, 119-143; d. 94 AH. 532, no. 7858. 6 Abu Mui:lammad 347 348 M. J. KISTER locusts'', 'Umar, as mentioned, liked the meal of locusts; when he heard about locusts which appeared in Rabadha he said he wished he had a basket or two of locusts", Anas b. Malik, the servant of the Prophet, relates that a group of companions of the Prophet went out to Khaybar; among them was 'Umar. 'Umar put a basket of locusts behind his saddle (i/:ttaqaba), and he used to take out a handful of them and hand it over to the men of the group. The Prophet watched the deed (and did not disapprove of it K.). Anas adds that when the group returned to Medina they used to buy locusts, dry them on the roofs (ajajir) and consume them!", 'Abdallah b. AbI Aufa!' relates that he fought on the side of the Prophet in six or seven raids (ghazawat) and the warriors used to eat locusts as their foOOl2• A significant version recorded by al-Damlri'! has an additional sentence: "and the Prophet too ate locusts" (... na'kulu 1jarad ... wa-ya'kuluhu rasidu llahi ~alla lliihu 'alayhi wa-sallam). Another tradition, which seems to point vaguely to the fact that the Prophet used to eat locusts, is recorded in 'All b. Balaban's al-lhsan bi-tartibi ~aJ:tll,li ni hibban'", The tradition of Ibn AbI Aufa about the six b or seven raids with the Prophet says: "and we used to eat locusts with him" iwa-kunrui na'kulu ma'ahu l-jariida). Al-Shaukani, commenting on this tradition in his Naylu l-autdr, sharh muntaqd l-akhbar min ahiidithi sayyidi l-akhyiir>, expresses doubt over the question whether the tradition referring to the Prophet - "we ate the locusts with him (ma'ahu) - denotes that the Prophet ate the locusts 'Abd AL-RAZZAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, 532, no. 7859. AL-BAYHAQI, al-Sunan al-kubrii, IX, 258; 'Abd AL-RAZZAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, 530, no. 8751. 10 AL-BAYHAQi, al-Sunan al-kubrd, IX, 258. 11 See on him: Ibn Hajar, al-Isdba, IV, 18-19, no. 4558. 12 'Abd AL-RAZZAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, 532, no. 8762; AL-BAYHAQi, al-Sunan alkubra, IX, 257, sup.; IBN KATHiR, Tafsir, Beirut, 1385/1966, III, 211; Nur al-Din ALHAYTHAMI, Majma' al-zawa'id wa-manba' al-fawd'id, Beirut, 1967, IV, 39; AL-JA~~AS, Al)kiimu l-qur'dn, Qustantiniyya, 1335, reprint Beirut, I, 110; AL-I:fUMAYDI,al-Musnad, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman AL-A'~i, Beirut-Cairo, 1382, II, 311, no. 713 - and see the references of the editor; AL-QURTUBI, Tafsir :: al-Idmi' li-ahkdmi l-qur'dn, Cairo, 1387/1967, VII, 268 inf.; AL-'AYNI, 'Umdatu l-qdri, sharh sahihi l-bukhdri, al-Muniriyya print., 1348, repr. Beirut, XXI, 109-110, no. 27; Ibn Hajar AL-'AsQALANi, Taghliqu l-ta'liq 'alii ~al)ll)i l-bukhdri, ed. S. "Al-Rahman Miisa L-QAZAQi, 'Amman, 1405/1985, IV, 511-512; Ibn Hajar AL-'AsQALANi, al·Matii1ibu l-'iiliya, II, 312, no. 2344; Muhammad b. Ahmad b. 'Abd al-Hadi al-MaqdisI AL-I:fANBALi, al-Muharrar fi l-haditti, ed. Y. 'Abd al-Rahman AL-MAR'ASHLi, M. S. I. SAMARA, J. H. AL-DHAHABi, Beirut, 1405/1985, II, 430, no. 761. 13 Haydtu l-hayawan, Cairo, 1383/1963, I, 189. 14 Ed. K. Y. AL-HOT, Beirut, 1407/1987, VII, 337, no. 5233. 15 Cairo, 1380/1960, VIII, 153. 8 9 THE LOCUST'S WING 349 with us or whether it says merely that the Prophet was in our company while we ate the locusts. The son of 'All b. AbI Talib, Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya, used to eat a meal of locusts prepared for him by Umm Fatima". It is said of the wives of the Prophet that they used to eat locusts and to send each other trays of locusts as gifts'? 'A'isha reports that she used to eat locusts and attests that the Prophet also used to eat them". In contrast, there are traditions stating that the Prophet permitted the believers to eat locusts, but he himself abstained from eating them!". This very tradition about the permission granted the believers to eat locusts, coupled with the tradition that the Prophet abstained from eating them, is recorded by Ibn Kathir in his Ta/sfr20, it is however followed by a clear explanation of the reasons: the Prophet abstained from eating locusts because he disliked (kana ya'dfu) them, in the same way that his noble soul disliked to eat lizards tal-dabb), although he permitted the believers to eat it. A similar explanation is recorded on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas: the Prophet abstained from eating locusts, kidneys and lizards. However, he did not forbid the believers to eat this food. He did not eat locusts because they point to chastisement and pain", he refrained from eating kidneys because of their location near the (organs of - K.) urination, he did not eat lizards because he was afraid that they might be metamorphosed creatures=. It is obvious that there was a lively discussion between scholars who considered the eating of locusts permissible and those who abstained AL-BUKHARi, al·Ta'rikh al-kabiri, Hyderabad, 1384/1964, IV, 215, no. 2548. 'Abd AL-RAZZAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, 533, no. 8763; IBN KATHiR,Tafsir, Beirut, III, 211, penult.; AL-BAYHAQI, al-Sunan al-kubrd, IX, 258; al-Khatib AL-BAGHDADi, MutjiJ:1U auham, II, 131, 132,259; AL-DAMiRi, Haydtu l-hayawan, 1,189; AL-QURTUBi, Tafsir = al Jdmi' li-ahkiimi l-qur'dn, Cairo, 1386/1967, VII, 269. 18 AL-JA~~A~, Ahkdmu l-qur'dn, I, 110: ... 'an 'a'ishata annahii kiinat ta'kulu l-jariida wa-taqiilu: kiina rasiilu lliihi salldlliihu 'alayhi wa-sallam ya 'kuluhu. 19 See M. M. L-ZABIDi, 'Uqudu l-jawdhiri l-munifa, ed. W.O. L-ALBANi,Beirut, 1406/1985, II, 124, ult.: aktharu jundi lliihi ta'dlii fi l-ardi l-jarddu Iii iikuluhu wa-la uharrimuhu. And see AL-JA~~A~, Al;kiimu l-qur'an, I, 110; M. N. I-DIn AL-ALBANi, Silsilatu l-ahadithi l-maudii'a, al-Riyad, 1408/1988, IV, 43-44, no. 1533; and see a tradition permitting the believers to eat lizards with a peculiar addition: wa-l-jariidu mithlu dhalika: Ibn 'Adiyy AL-JURJANi, al-Kiimil fi tju'afa'i l-rijdl, Beirut, 1405/1985, II, 521; and see COOK,p. 267, note 413. 20 III, 211. 21 This seems to refer to the plague of locusts in Egypt, as reported in the Qur'an - K. 22 IBN KATHiR, afsir, III, 211; and see AL-ZVRQANI, T Sharhu l-mawdhibi l-laduniyya, Cairo, 1327, IV, 329 ult. - 330: the Prophet disliked to eat kidneys because they are placed near the organs of urination. 16 17 350 M. J. KISTER from eating them. In this context the utterance of Muhammad b. SIrIn23 "Somebody better than me and you used to eat locusts't-" gets its meaning. People who abstained from eating locusts acted according to the opinion of the Prophet who refrained from eating them because they are unclean (because they contain filthy material in their intestines - K.) and intimate chastisement and suffering". The traditions on the authority of 'A'isha, which say that the Prophet rebuked the boys (#byanana) for eating locusts, fit in with the latter traditions". Malik b. Anas was against "hunting" locusts in Medina; he remarked, however, that there was nothing bad in driving the locusts away from the palm trees". Al-Suyiiti records in his al-Rahma fi l-tibb wa-l-hikma two efficient charms to expel (tarl;zU) the locusts; if the charms are written according to prescription, the locusts will leave the place". Al-Zamakhshari recorded the following thought about locusts: they are beneficial because they are eaten and help people to make a living (yu 'dshu bihii, if the locusts hit a cultivated land the owner of that land will be rewarded if he perseveres patiently". This idea is reflected in the story of the inscription on the wings of the locust. Al-Hasan b. 'AlI sat at a table in the company of his brother Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya and his cousins 'Abdallah, Qutham and al-Fadl, the sons of al- 'Abbas. A locust fell on the table and 'Abdallah asked al-Hasan concerning the inscription on its wings. The latter answered that he had asked his father, 'AlI, about it; 'AlI in tum had asked the Prophet, who disclosed to him the text of the inscription: "I am God and there is no god except Me. I am the Lord of the locust granting sustenance to it. If I wish (in shi'tuy 23 See on him: IBN l:fAJAR,Tahdhibu l-tahdhib, Hyderabad, 1326, IX, 214-217, no. 336. 24 AL-BUKHARI, al-Ta'rtkn al-kabir, IV, 216, no. 2553 and p. 372, sup.; the saying of Ibn Sirin points evidently to the Prophet; it represents the opinion of the scholars who considered the eating of locusts permissible. 25 See Qur'an, siirat al-a'rdf, verse 133. 26 YaI}.yiiB. MA'IN, al-Ta'rikh, ed. A. M. Nur SAYF, Mecca al-mukarrama, 1399/ 1979, I, 279, no. 4592-4593 and IV, 321; AL-'AYNI, 'Umdatu l-qdri, XXI, 110; and cf. 'Abd AL-RAZZAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, 410, no. 8249: ... 'ani l-walidi bni 'abdilliih qiila: ra'aytu sa'ida bna jubayrin bi-makkata yakhruju fa-yard fi aydi l-sibydni l-jariida fa-yaflituhu; - in text: fa-yaqtuluhu; the correction is of the editor - min aydihim, wa-kana yardhu saydan. 27 'Abdallah b. AbI Zayd AL-QAYRAWANI, al-Jdmi'ft I-sunan wa-l-addb wa-l-maghdzi wa-l-ta'rikh, ed. M. Abu L-AJFAN and 'U, BfITlKH,Beirut, 1402/1982, p. 142. 28 Cairo, n.d., p. 255; cf. AL-DAMIRI, Haydtu l-hayawdn, I, 189. 29 AL-ZAMAKHSHARI, Rabi'u l-abrdr wa-nusiisu l-akhbdr, ed. S. AL-NU'AYMI, Bagdad, 1982, IV, 459. THE LOCUST'S WING 351 I send the locust as sustenance for certain people (rizqan li-qaumin), and if I wish I send it as a trial of misfortune for other people". 'Abdallah confirmed that that was indeed a piece of hidden knowledge.", There is a tradition that goes together with the idea that the locust was created by God and that God determines whether it harms or not: the Prophet prohibited the killing of locusts; Iii taqtulu l-jariida fa-innahu jundu lldhi l-a 'zamu, said the Prophet". According to a tradition of the Prophet there is an inscription on the locust's chest that says: "The greatest army of God" (jundu lldhi l-a ',?am)32.Al-Tha'labi records a tradition concerning the origin of this expression: when God expelled Iblis from Paradise He asserted that He would establish a force of locusts twa-ana muttakhidhun min khalqi jundan huwa l-jariidu). Iblis replied that his army would consist of women, who would make up a net (such as used by a hunter or a fisherman - K.) which will never fail33• Qurtubi records the arguments of those scholars who hold the view that one should abstain from killing locusts even though they cause harm and destroy plants and trees. The opponents stressed that the locusts must be driven away from the cultivated fields which they destroy, and must even be fought against and killed=. A peculiar tradition attributed 30 AL-DAMIRI, Haydtu l-hayawdn, I, 188; Abu Bakr al-Bakri b. Muhammad Shatta alDirnyati AL-MAKKI, l'dnatu l-tdlibin 'alii halli alfiizi fathi l-mu'in, n.p., 1319, repr. Beirut, 11,353, AL-SUYUTi, al-Durr al-manthur fi l-tafsiri bi-l-ma'thur, Cairo, 1314, repr. Tehran, III, 110 reports about two versions of the inscription, one in Syriac and one in Hebrew; AL-BARQI, al-Mahasin, ed. M. S. Bahr AL-'ULUM, Najaf, 1384/1964, pp. 399-400, nos. 501-502; but in this version the inscription was in Syriac and was recorded in Arabic as follows: inni and lliihu qtisimu l-jabbarin, khalaqtu l-jariida wa-ja'altuhu jundan min juniidi, uhliku bihi man shi'tu min khalqi; Anonymous, Qisas al-anbiyd', MS. Leiden Or. 14027, fo!. 16 b.; AL-MAJILISI. Bihar al-anwiir, Tehran, 1392, LXV, 192-193, nos. 7-9, 206, no. 34, 212-213, nos. 59-60; AL-MulTAQI L-I:IINDI, Kanz al- 'ummdl, Hyderabad, 1390/1970, XVII, 146-147, nos. 481-483. 31 AL- TABARANI, Musnad al-shdmiyyin, ed. 1:1. 'Abd al-Majid AL-SILAFI, Beirut, 1409/1989, II, 438, no. 1656; and see ibid. the references of the editor; AL-SUYUrI, Jam'u l-jawiimi', Cairo, 1978, I, 899; IBN KATHIR, Tafsir, III, 212 with the version Iii tuqdtilu 1jariid: Shirawayh b. Shahridar AL-DAYLAMI, Firdaus al-akhbtir, ed. F. A. AL-ZIMIRL! and M. al-Mu'tasim bi-llahi L-BAGHDADI, Beirut, 1407/1987, V. 192, no. 7577; and see ibid. the references of the editor; Nur al-Din AL-HAYTHAMI, Majma' al-zawa'id, IV, 39; AL-MuNAwI, Faydu l-qadir, VI, 416, no. 9842; see the explication of Munawi ibid.; AL-SUYDTI, al-Durr al-manthiir, III, 109 inf.; N. al-Din AL-ALBANI, $aJ;lJ;u l-jiimi' l-saghir, Beirut, 1406/1986, II, 1232, no. 7388; AL-MAJLISI, Bihar al-anwdr, LXV, 192, no. 8. 32 AL-THA'LABI, Qisasu l-anbiyd', Cairo. n.d., p. 256. 33 In catching by seduction the sinner - K.; AL-THA'LABI, Qisas al-anbiyd', p. 256. 34 AL-QURTUBI, Tafsir, VII, 268; and see AL-SUYUTi, al-Durr al-manthiir, III, 109, inf.; AL-SAMARQANDI,Bustdn al- 'drifin, p. 126, inf. 352 M. J. KISTER to the Prophet and apparently given circulation by the scholars who advocated abstention from the killing of locusts, says: "He who kills a locust is like a man who kills a dweller of the low Iand':". The sin of killing a locust is thus equated with that of murder. Finally, let us quote an anecdote of Bedouin character, typical of the sense of honour of the Arab nomad. It tells of a group of Bedouins who came to one of their neighbours informing him that a swarm of locusts had invaded his land. He was their jar (granting them protection - K.) and they came asking his permission to kill the locusts in order to eat them. The Bedouin, however, refused. He argued that as a jiir he was obliged to protect his guest. He went out from his tent with a sword and attacked the crowd, thus securing the immunity of the locusts". Some traditions emphasize the qualities of the locusts and display an appreciation for them: God, according to one tradition, created the locust from the clay which remained after He created Adam37. A tradition reported on the authority of 'Umar b. al-Khattab and attributed to the Prophet says that the first creature to perish will be the locust". This tradition is embedded in an utterance of the Prophet containing predictions about the End of the World: God created a thousand kinds of creatures (alf ummatin), six hundred of them live in the seas and four hundred on the land; the first of these kinds to perish will be the locust. When the locust perishes all the other kinds will follow to their doom like a string of pearls which breaks Up39. It thus happened that in one of the years of 'Umar's rule he noticed that no information was forthcoming about appearances of the locusts in the Muslim empire. He became concerned about that and sent 35 AL-SuyDTI, al-Durr al-maruhiir, III, 109, penult.: man qatala jaradatan fa-kaannama qatala ghauriyyan. 36 Ibn AL-'ARABI, al-Wa~aya, Beirut, n.d., pp. 55 inf.-56 sup. The Bedouin allowed however to go after them when they were in the air: AL-DAMIRI, Haydtu l-hayawan, I, 190; he was nicknamed mujiru l-jarad, "the protector of the locusts"; his name was Mudlij b. Suwayd al- Ta 'I; see on him and on the proverb ahnui min mujiri l-jartid: Hamza AL-I$FAHANI, al-Durra al-fiikhira fi l-amthdli l-sa'ira, ed. 'Abd AL-MAJiD QUTAMISH, Cairo, 1966, 1,166, no. 191; AL-MAYDANi, Majma' al-amthdl, ed. M. MUJ:iyI I-DIn 'Abd AL-HAMiD, Carro, 1379/1959, I, 221, no. 1184. 37 AL-DAMrRr, Haydt al-hayawan, I, 188; AL-SUYVT, al-Durr al-manthur, III, 110; and see COOK, p. 267, sup. 38 I1;m AbI 'A~im AL-SHAYBANI, al-Awa'il, ed. M. b. Nasir AL-'AjamI, al-Kuwayt, 1405, p. 90 ult.-91, no. 111; and see the references of the editor. 39 AL-QURTUBI, Tafsir, VII, 269; AL-DAMiRI,/fayatu l-hayawdn, I, 188; AL-ZAMAKHSHARI,Rabi'u l-abrd, IV, 459; AL-THA'LABI, Qisas al-anbiya', p. 256. THE LOCUST'S WING 353 messengers to the Yemerr'? and to Syria to get information about locusts. The messenger that was sent to the Yemen came back with a handful of locusts. 'Umar exclaimed three times alldhu akbar and quoted the prediction of the Prophet as to the locust being the first creature to perish, with all other creatures following in its suir". The virtue of the locust was enhanced by stories according to which prophets, saints and ascetics used to eat locusts. One such story is told about Zaynab'". One day she was serving her guests, Wahb b. 'Abdallah al-Ma'afirr" and 'Abdallah b. 'Umar, roasted locusts in butter (samn). She said: "0 Egyptian", you probably prefer the meal of salted fish. But eat, 0 Egyptian, (scil. the locusts - K.) because one of the prophets asked God to grant him the meat of a bird which was not slaughtered; and God granted him locusts and fish'". Yahya b. Zakariyii is said to have had as food locusts and the marrow of trees". Maryam, the mother of Jesus, asked God to feed her with a kind of meat that did not contain blood; God nourished her with locusts". There is indeed a tradition that records a supplication by Maryam in which she invoked God to grant life and sustenance to locusts". 40 About the prediction concerning the devastation of lands and countries see ALQALYUBl,al-Nawiidir, Carro, 1374/1955, p. 114: Mecca will be destroyed by the Abyssinians, Medina and Bukhara through hunger, Kiifa and 'Iraq will be destroyed by the Turks, Yemen will be destroyed by locusts ... ; a list of other cities and countries which will be destroyed and the information as to who will carry out the destruction is provided in the passage. 41 IBN 'ARAQ, Tanzin al-shari'ati l-marfii'a 'ani l-akhbdri l-shani'ati l-maudii'a, ed. 'Abd al-Wahhab 'Abd AL-LATIF and 'A. M. AL-~IDoIQ, eirut, 1399/1979, I, 189; M. b. B I:Iibbiin al-Tamlmi AL-BUSTl, itab al-majriihin, ed. M. I. ZAYID,Beirut, 1396, II, 256K 257, and see the references of the editor; AL-SHAUKANl, al-Fawa'idu l-majmii'a fi l-ahddithi l-maudii'a, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman b. YaI}.yaAL-Mu'ALLAMI -YAMANI, eirut, L B 1392, pp. 458-459, no. 1302; cf. Ibn Hamza al-Husayni al-Hanafi AL-DIMASHQl, al-Bayan wa-l-ta'rif fi asbabi wurudi l-hadithi l-sharif, ed. H. 'Abd AL-MAJloHASHIM, evised by r 'Abd AL-I:IALIM MAHMuo, Beirut, 1400/1980, II, 202-203, no. 988 - and see the references given by the author; AL-SAMARQANOI, Bustdn al- 'drifin, on margin of Samarqandi's Tanbin al-ghdfilin, Carro, 1347, p. 127. 42 Most likely the wife of the Prophet - K. 43 His correct name is Wiihib b. 'Abdallah al-Ma'afin: see on him: Ibn Hajar AL'AsQALANl,Tahdibu l-tahdhib, Hyderabad, 1327, XI, 105, no. 188. 44 She addressed Wiihib b. 'Abdallah, who lived in Egypt - K. 45 AL-BAYHAQI, al-Sunan al-kubrd, IX, 258. 46 AL-DAMlRI, aya: al-hayawdn, I, 188. H 47 IBNKAmm, Tafsir, III, 212, sup.; Nur al-Din AL-HAYTHAMi, Majma' al-zawa'id, IV, 39; AL-BAYHAQl, al-Sunan al-kubrii, IX, 258; Ibn Hajar AL-'AsQALANi, Lisdn al-mizdn, Hyderabad, 1331, VI, 163-164, no. 574; AL-DHAHABl, Mizdn al-i'tiddl, ed. 'A. M. AL-BuAwI, Cairo, IV, 259, no. 9071; AL-'AYNl, 'Umdatu l-qdri, XXI, 110; AL-THA'LABI, Qisasu [. anbiyd', p. 256; M. N. I-DIn AL-ALBANl, Silsilatu l-ahddithi l-da'ifa, IV, 456-457, no. 1533. 48 Ibn AL-ATHIR, l-Nihdya a fi gharibi l-hadith, ed. M. M. AL-TANAI:II T. A. ALand ZAwI, Cairo, 1383/1963, II, 520; L'A, s.v. "shy"'. 354 M.1. KISTER The literature contains some very complimentary descriptions of the locust. The components of its body share in the qualities of ten of the strongest beasts: its face is like that of a horse, its eye like that of an elephant, its neck like that of a bull, its horn (qarn) like that of a deer, its chest like that of a lion, its belly like that of a snake, its wings like that of an eagle, its thighs like that of a camel, its legs like that of an ostrich and its tail like that of a scorpiorr'", Early poetry contains many verses where attractive descriptions of locusts and their swarms are given'". A tradition reported by Abii Hurayra on the authority of the Prophet says that when Ayyub was one day washing his naked body he was faced by a swarm of golden locusts; Ayyiib tried hastily to catch the locusts and put them in his garment. When asked by God whether he did not get enough from God's bounty so as to be in no need of additional wealth, Ayyiib replied that he wanted to have more of God's blessing (baraka). Al-Shafi'i is said to have commented on this tradition: ni'ma l-malu l-~iilll; rna 'a 1-'abdi 1-~iiliI;51. A tradition recorded in some commentaries of the Qur'an says that during his isra' the Prophet saw the farthest Lote-treef under which a swarm of golden locusts sought refuge'", In one of his speeches 'All gives a lovely description of the elaborate and fine creation of the body of the locusr'". The role of the locusts in the rescue of the prophet Muhammad is depicted in a miraculous story recorded in the commentary of the Qur'an of al-Katakani'". It was an unusual kind of locusts which annihilated the enemies of the Prophet, while the locusts sent by God against the Copts in Egypt did not harm the Copts and their families and only devastated their property". 49 AL-QALYUBI, al-Nawddir, p. 119; and see ibid three verses on these similarities; AL-DAMIRI, Haydtu l-hayawan; I, 188, and see ibid two verses on this subject. 50 See e.g. IBN QUTAYBA, Kitdbu l-ma'dni l-kabir, Hyderabad, 1368/1949, II, 610-615, I, 45; Abu Hiliil AL-'ASKARI, Diwan al-ma'iini, Cairo, 1352, II, 151; AL-JA.l:iIZ,alHayawdn, V, 558-561. 51 AL-DAMIRi, Haydtu l-hayawdn I, 187; see the tradition ni'ma l-mdlu /·.fiili~ in ALDAYLAMI, Firdausu l-akhbiir, V, 14, no. 7023. 52 Siiratu l-najm, verses 14-15: wa-laqad ra'iihu nazlatan ukhrd * 'inda sidrati l-muntaha. 53 AL-TABARA.NI, Musnad al-shdmiyyin, II, 420; AL-SUYDTI. al-Durr al-manthur, VI, 126. 54 AL-ZAMAKHSHARI, Rabi'u l-abrdr, IV, 459; Ibn AbI L-I:IADID, Sharn nahji l-baliigha, ed. M. Abu L-FAPL IBRA.HIM, airo, 1964, XIII, 65 ult. -66; AL-MAJUSI, Bihar C al-anwdr, LXIV, 44-45. 55 Al-Burhdn fi tafsiri l-qur'dn, Qumm 1393, II, 30-31. 56 See e.g. MUJA.HID, afsir, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman T al-Tahir b. Muhammad AL-SORATI. Islamabad, n.d., repr. Beirut, I.244; IBN KATHlR. Tafsir, III, 212. THE LOCUST'S WING 355 When the Prophet was on one of his journeys, on his retum from Syria to Mecca, he was followed by two hundred Jews who intended to kill him in order to prevent him from destroying the power of the Jews. He was in a caravan and they did not have the courage to carry out their plan. When, however, he went out in a distance for his natural needs, the Jews surrounded him and drew their swords against him. Then God sent, from a sand-hill at the feet of the Prophet, a swarm of locusts that sorrounded the Jews and attacked them; they were prevented from launching their attack by the distraction caused by the stings of the locusts. When the Prophet had been through with his natural needs, he returned to the caravan and was asked about the fate of the group who had followed him. The Prophet said that they had been annihilated by the locusts. The people of the caravan went out and found that the Jews had been eaten by the locusts. * * * The legal licence to eat even dead fish and dead locusts is based on a widely circulated utterance of the Prophet: "You have been permitted to eat two species of dead and two kinds of blood: fish and locusts, liver and spleen'P". There are some reports saying that the Prophet was reluctant to eat spleen and was followed in this matter by 'A1I58. But the haditli giving permission to eat liver and spleen caused Zayd b. Thabit to show ostentatiously that he ate spleen in order to manifest that there is nothing bad in eating it59• b. 'AlI b. 'Abd al-Wahid Ibn al-Naqqash AL-MAGHRlBI,lhkamu 57 Muhammad l-ahkami l-sadirati min bayni shafatay sayyidi l-andm, ed. R. F. 'Abd AL-MuITALIB, Cairo, 1409/1989, p. 630, no. 948; AL-'AYNI. 'Umdatu l-qdri, XXI, 110; AL-MuNAwI, Faydu l-qadir, I, 200, no. 273; IBN KATHIR, Tafsir, III, 211; Ibn AL-'ARABI,Ahkdmu l-qur'an, ed. 'A. M. AL-BIJAWI, Cairo, 1387/1967, I, 52, and see ib. the evaluation of the utterance; AL-QURTUBI, Tafsir, VII, 268; AL-DARAQUTNI,Sunan, ed. 'A. H. Y. AL-MADANI, aIMadina al-munawwara, 1386/1966, IV, 271-272; A. b. 'Abdallah b. Miisa l-Kindi ALSAMDIL-NAZWI, al-Musannaf, ed. 'Abd AL-MuN'IM 'AMIR and J. A/:IMAD,'Uman, printed in Cairo, 1980, III, 97; AL-SHAUKANI, Naylu l-autar, sharn muntaqd l-akhbdr min ahddithi sayyidi l-akhydr, Cairo, 1380/1961, VIII, 152; Ibn Qayyim AL-JAUZIYYA, Zadu l-ma'dd fi hadyi khayri I· 'ibdd, Beirut, n.d., III, 170, 188; Murtada L-ZABIDI,lthafu l-sadati l-muttaqin bi-sharhi asrdri ihyd'! 'uliani l-din, Cairo, 1311, repr. Beirut, VII, 122; Ibn Qayyim AL-JAUZIYYA,al-Tibbu l-nabawi, ed. 'Abd al-Ghani 'Abd AL-KHALIQ, 'Adil AL-AZHARI, M. F. AL-'UQDA, Cairo, 1377/1957, p. 298. 58 'Abd AL-RAZzAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, 536, no. 8773: kana rasiilu lliihi ya'afi; l-tihal and no. 8774: ... anna 'aliyyan kana yakrahu mina l-shati l-tihal ...; cf. AL,ZABIDI,lthdfu l-sada, II, 121, info 59 'Abd AL-RAZzAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, p. 536, no. 8776; Murtada L-ZABIDI, Ithafu l-siida, VII, 122, inf. 356 M. J. KISTER That game hauled from the sea need not be ritually slaughtered is expressed by the following tradition: "God has already slaughtered the game of the sea for mankind", said the Prophet'", Based on the Prophet's saying to the effect that the locust was a creature originating in the sea, the locust, like the fish, was allowed to be consumed either alive or dead. The legal definition stated that water was not polluted by the death of fish, and dead fish was thus allowed to be consumed. The Prophet is said to have defined it suecintly: "Its water is pure, its dead creatures (like fish and locusts - K.) may be consumed"?'. The commentators of the Qur'an assume in various traditions that the permission regarding game from the sea includes dead fish brought to shore by the sea. Such an interpretation was given on the authority of 'Umar: Abu Hurayra told 'Umar that he had given such a decision when asked concerning this matter by the people of Bahrayn during his stay in that province. 'Umar approved of his verdict, as it conformed with the injunctions of the quoted verse'". Locusts were included in the category of "game from the sea" and consequently, it was permissible for pilgrims to consume them without any reservation. The case of Ka'b alAhbar was an instructive precedent in this case: he was appointed by 'Umar to proceed with a group of pilgrims from Syria to Mecca. On their way they were faced by a swarm of locusts; Ka'b issued a decision according to which they could catch the locusts and consume them. When asked by 'Umar about the reason for his decision, Ka'b answered that the locust is a creature that originates from the sneeze of a fish; the 60 AL-SHAUKANI, Naylu l-autiir, VIII, 152, inf.: inna llaha dhabaha rna fi l-bahri Ii· bani adam; according to another vesion ibid, p. 154 inf.: "everything in the sea is (already) slaughtered", kullu shay'in fi l-bahri madhbiih, And see this tradition: Ibn Hajar AL-'ASQALANI, Taghliqu l-ta'liq 'ala ~abibi l-bukhdri, ed. S. 'Abd al-Rahman Musa AL-QAZAQI, 'Amman, 61 1405/1985, IV, 505 penult.-506 sup. Huwa l-tahiau ma'uhu l-hillu maytatuhu. Seel AL-BAYHAQI, al-Sunanu l-kubra I, 254; Ibn AL'ARABI, Tafsir, 1,52 ult.-53; AL-QURTUBI, Tafsir, VI, 319, and see ibid. pp. 318, 320: locusts and fish may be considered as if they have been ritually slaughtered, kulluhu; 'Abd AL-RAZZAQ, al-Musannaf, I, 532, no. 8761: ... al-jarddu wa-l-hitdnu dhakiyyun. And see the utterance of Abu Bakr: inna lldha ta'dld dhabaha lakum rna fi l-bahri fa-kuliihu kullahu: AL-DARAQUTNI, Sunan, IV, 270. no. 16; AL-KHATIBU L-BAGHDADI, Talkhisu l-mutashdbib fi l-rasm, ed. S. AL-SHIHABI, Damascus, 1985, II, 723; AL-NAzwl, al-Musannaf, III, 110; and see ibid.: ... wa-ajma'ii anna mauta l-samaki fi l-ma'i la yunajissuhu wa·anna l-mauta l-hdsila fi l-samaki ta yujibu fihi tanjisan; ... Nur al-Din AL-HAYTHAMI, Majma' al-zawti'id, IV, 39. 62 AL-TABARj, Tafsir = Jdmi'u l-bayiin 'an ta'wil ayi l-qur'an, ed. M. M. SHAKIR and A. M. SHAKIR, Cairo, 1957, XI, 61, no. 12687. al-jarddu wa-l-hitdnu dhakiyyun THE LOCUST'S WING 357 fish sneezes twice a year=. 'Umar himself is further said to have faced a swarm of lucusts while in a state of ihram and to have attacked them, killing many of them. He argued that the locusts belonged to the category of game coming from the sea (saydu l-bahrii, and the struggle against them was therefore permitted 64. Finally, certain traditions claimed that the Prophet himself confirmed that locusts belong to the category of game from the sea". This utterance is clearly exposed in the story of Abu Hurayra=, Abu Hurayra went out for a hajj or an 'umra with a group of believers. On their way they faced a swarm of locusts. They hit them with sticks; the Prophet expressed his approval by saying that locusts belonged to the category of game from the sea'", A further proof for the assertion that locust is of the same category as game from the sea is found in another haditli of the Prophet. The Prophet is said to have invoked against locusts. When asked about his invocation against an army of the armies of God (tad'u 'alii jundin min ajniidi lldhibi-qat'i diibirihi?) he replied that the locust had been created from the sneeze of a fish in the sea'". The scholars of Law and hadith, however, were not unanimous about the method of preparing and consuming locusts; the majority of scholars were of the opinion that there was no need to establish the cause of death of a locust. But some of them considered it necessary to know the cause of death of a locust: it may be consumed only if killed by cutting the head, or the feet, or the wings, or by boiling, or roasting. They considered locusts as creatures of the land and were of the opinion that eating dead locusts, without knowing the cause of death, is not allowed'". 63 M. b. al-Hasan al-SHAYBANI, Kitdbu l-hujja 'ala ahli l-madina, ed. M. H. AL-KILANI AL-QADIRI, Beirut. 1403/1983, II, 169-170; AL-MuTfAQI L-HINDI, Kanzu l-tummal, V, 146, no. 1051; M. al-Din AL-TABARI, al-Qird li-qdsidi ummi l-qura, ed. M. L-SAQQA, Cairo. 1390/1970, p. 231; 'Abd AL·RAZZAQ, al-Musannaf, IV, 531, no. 8752. 64 AL-SUYUTI, al-Durr al-manthur, II, 332. 65 AL-BAGHAwl, Masabihu l-sunna, ed. Y. 'Abd al-Rahman AL-MAR'ASHLI, M. S. I. SAMARA, J. H. L-DHAHABI, Beirut, 1407/1987, II, 287, no. 1966; and see ibid. the references of the editors. 66 It was AbU Hurayra who transmitted this tradition in the Masdbih, 67 Muhibb al-Din AL-TABARI, al-Qird, p. 230; AL-SuYOTI, al-Durr al-manthur, II, 333; IBN KATHIR, Tafsir, III, 212; AL-'AYNI, 'Umdat al-qdri, XXI, 110. 68 Ibn Hamza AL-I:IUSAYNI,al-Baydn wa-l-ta'rif, II, 265-266, no. 936; AL-QURTUBI, Tafsir, VII, 268; IBN KATHIR, Tafsir, III, 212; AL-MUNAwl, Faydu l-qadir, III, 355, no. 3615-3616; Ibn al-Dayba' AL-SHAYBANI,Tamyizu l-tayyib mina l-khabith fimd yadiiru 'ala alsinati l-ndsi mina l-hadith, Cairo, 1382/1963, p. 62. 69 AL-QURTUBI, Tafsir, VII, 269; and see Ibn AL-'ARABI, Ahkdmu l-qur'dn, I, 53; Ibn I:IAZM, al-Muhalld, ed. A. M. SHAKIR, Cairo, n. d., VII, 437, no. 1042; and see Ibn Qayyim AL-JAUZIYYA, Zddu l-ma'dd, III, 189: ... wa-fi ibiihati maytatihi bild sabab 358 M.l KISTER A concise definition of the problem discussed by scholars is given by Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Dimashqi al-'Uthmani al-Shafi'I in his Rahmatu I-umma fi khtildfi l-a'imma'? .... wa-minhd l-jarddu wa-yu 'kalu may tan 'ala kulli halin; wa-qdla malik: 10.yu 'kalu minhu md mdta hatfa anfihi min ghayri sababin yusna'u bihi. Some scholars held the view that locusts are coming from the sea as well as from the land". 'Umar is said to have objected to Abu Hurayra's position that locusts originated from the sneeze of a fish'". Consequently 'Umar imposed special payments for killing locusts by the pilgrims to Mecca". Scholars of Muslim law were often questioned as to the ways of preparing locusts for food. Ahmad b. Hanbal is said to have permitted to cook living locusts in boiling water and salt or to throw living locusts into the fire in order to have them roasted?", Some scholars, however, did not permit boiling or roasting living locusts". Locusts were consumed hot or cold, cooked, fried or prepared on burning coals; they were sometimes arranged on strings. A food much sought after were the eggs of locusts. Locusts were sometimes served as condiment (idam), sometimes as dessert (nuql). Bedouin locusts tal-a'rdbi) were considered best". qauldni, wa-ld khilafa fi ibahatihi idha mata bi-sababin ka-l-kabs wa-l-tahriq. wa· l-jumhur 'alii hillihi, wa-harramahu mdlik; and see Ibn Qayyim AL-JAUZIYYA. al-Tibb al-nabawi, p. 298, inf. 70 71 ... wa-lani l-hasani annahu qala: aljaradu min saydi l-barri wa-l-bahri. 72 Muhibb al-Din AL-TABARI, al-Qird, p. 231: ... fa-kariha 'umaru qaulahu ... 73 'Abd AL-RAZZA.Q, al-Musannaf, IV, 410-411; AL-MUTIAQI L-HINDI, Kanzu I· 'ummal, V, 138, no. 1006; Muhibb al-Dln AL-TABARI, al-Qird, pp. 231-232; AL-JARRA.J:lI, Kashfu l-khafa'i wa-muzilu l-ilbds 'amma shtahara mina l-ahadithi 'alii alsinati l-ruis, Beirut, 1351, I, 317, no. 1019; AL-ZURQA.NI,Sharh muwatta'i l-imdmi mdlik, ed. I. 'A. 'AWAD, Cairo 1381/1961, III, 245; AL-SUYCJTI,al-Durr al-manthiir, II, 328. 74 Ahmad b. I:IANBAL, Masd'il ahmad b. hanbal, riwdyatu bnihi 'abdi lldh, ed. 'A. S. AL-MuHANNA., al-Madina al-munawwara, 1406/1986, III, 883-884, no. 1189 - and see the references of the editor; Ahmad b. I:IANBAL,Masa'il ahmad b. hanbal, riwdyat ibnihi abi l-fadl sdlih, ed. F. l-Rahman DIn MUJ:lAMMAD,Delhi, 1408/1988, II, 245, no. 839 and see the references of the editor; Abu Bakr b. Muhammad Shatta AL-DIMYA.TI,I'anatu l-tiilibin, II, 354. 75 Ahmad b. Ahmad b. Isma'Tl al-Hulwani al-Khaliji AL-KHALWATI, al-Wasm fi 1washm, Cairo, 1323, pp. 34-35. 76 AL-JA.HI~, Kitabu l-hayawan, ed. 'Abd al-Salam HA.RUN,Cairo, 1386/1966, V, 565567, IV, 43; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr AL·QURTUBI, Bahjat al-majdlis wa-unsu l-mujdlis, ed. M. M. L-KHULI and 'Abd al-Qadir xt-Qrrr, Cairo, 1967, II, 81-82, quoted from al-Jahiz, Beirut, 1407/1987, p. 120. Muhibb al-Din AL-TABARI, al-Qird, p. 232: THE LOCUST'S WING 359 * * * The three treatises mentioned by the late L. Kopf in EI-2 in the article djardd are not extant; a fourth one collected by Ibn 'Asakir under the title Iuz' fi l-jariid seems also to be 10st77. Joseph Qafih gives in his book, Halikhot teyman, Jerusalem, 197878, a detailed description of the custom of collecting locusts by the Jewish population in the Yemen and the ways of cooking and frying them. Important facts concerning the international campaigns for fighting the invasions of locusts into the different regions of the Arab peninsula are given in the publication of the Naval Intelligence Division, Geographical Handbook Series, Western Arabia and the Red Sea, June 1946, pp. 495-498. In some regions of Arabia locusts provide food for the poorer nomads, having been collected and then cooked, dried, or roasted?". The Hebrew University Institute of Asian and African Studies Mt. Scopus Jerusalem 91905 (Israel) M. J. KISTER 77 78 79 See IBN KATHIR, Tafsir, III, 211, 1. \0 bot. ed. Israel Yeshayahu, pp. 218-221. Ibid, p. 424.