Article languages: الإنجليزية
Find more Articles about:
akhbar_al-buldan_review.pdf 211 ARABICA-ISLAM BIBLIOTHECA ORIENTALIS XXXIX N° 1/2, lanuari-Maart 1982 212 A. S. JAMGOTCHIAN, Buldan (Izvestia 0 AKADEMIINAUK Armanskoi SSR, 319pp.). The value of Jamgotchian's painstaking and meticulous edition of the Meshhed fragments of Ibn al-Faqih's compilation 1) was enhanced by his introduction, translation of the text, notes and comments, a bibliography and a summary in English. The very important and hitherto unpublished chapters of Ibn al-Faqih's compilation were thoroughly studied by Jamgotchian; this is attested to by a number of articles based on these fragments and published by him in Russian 2). Some misreadings of the texts of the published fragments, misunderstandings and misinterpretations are elucidated and emended in the following lines. P. 155, 1. 8 is read by Jamgotchian: (Ed.), Ibn al-Faqih, Stranakh). Erevan, Izdatelstvo 1979 (22 cm., Akhbar al- P. 155, ll. 11-12: Jamgotchian overlooked the fact that the quotation of Humayd al-Arqat contains three rajaz hemistichs; the first is in fact a curse: "May God bring shame sooner or later"; the second, "upon the first slave who made the litters" 5); the third hemistich reiterates the expression "slave" in an explanatory version: "The slave of Thaqif", which was overlooked by the editor. P.155,1.12: . [read: al-khaysh] has not been translated. The meaning ofthe phrase can be deduced from a passage in Ibn Tiqtaqa's al-FakhrI7) about the inventions of al-Mansur: " ... wa-minjumlati ma khtara'a 'amalu l-khayshi l-kattani fi l_sayfi ... ". The coarse fabrics of linen used for this special kind of tent explains the expression ".duriba lahu l-khaysh", the first man for whom the [tent of] khaysh was erected 8). * * P. 156,1. 8 P. 156, ll. 14-15: (trans. p. 25, 1.6) has not been translated. and translated (p. 24, 11.7-10): is rendered (p. 25, 11.18-21): The reading is not correct and the phrase is consequently misinterpreted. The pronoun huwa does not refer to Ibn alZubayr, as Ibn al-Zubayr was not the first man who came to Wasit. The phrase has to be vocalized: wa-qatala bna 1zubayri, "and he killed Ibn al-Zubayr"; the pronoun refers to al-Hajjaj, who indeed killed Ibn al-Zubayr. But al-Hajjaj was certainly not the first man who came to Wasit. The erroneous reading atana is the cause of the trouble; the verb has to be read: ibtana and the passage has to be read: ... wandered: " ... and he (i.e., Hajjaj) killed Ibn al-Zubayr ... and he (i.e., Hajjaj) was the first who built madinat ai-islam, i.e., Wasit"· P. 155,1. 9: is rendered by the editor (p. 24, 11.10-11) : " Ma.hamil', does not, however, denote "sword belts" but "litters on camels". This is fully confirmed by Ibn Qutayba in his "Ma'arif" 3) and quoted by al-Mausili, Ghayat al-wasa'il ila ma'rifati l-awa'il4). The expression wa-.hamala fiha is a convincing proof that al-mahamil al-hajjajiyya refer to litters. qatala bna l-zubayrifijumada l-akhira, wa-huwa awwalu man ibtana madinata l-islami wa-hiya wasit, and should be re- The maqsura mentioned in this passage refers evidently to a part of the building of the mosque of WasiL this maqsura formed a conspicuous feature of the mosque9). Yaghshaha does not mean that a noble man of the people of Aslam kept 40 men in the maqsura but merely that forty noble men of the clan of Aslam used to enter it; the subject of the sentence is, of course, forty people of Aslam. P. 158.11. 7-8: is rendered (p. 27, 11.4-5) : The translation of the last part of the phrase is erroneous and is based evidently on a misreading of the verb; the editor seems to have read: wa-stamarra at'amaha ... ; but the correct reading is: wa-stamra'a ,ta'amaha, which has to be rendered: "and he found its food and drinks tasty". P. 158,1. 15: 2) See Ibn al-Faqih, cit., p. 130; and cf. O. Tskitishvili, Concerning The Tashkent Ms. of a Geographical Treatise by Ibn al-Faqih alHamadhani, JESHO, XXIII (1980),305, note 3inf. 3) Ed. Tharwat 'Ukasha, Cairo 1969, p. 553. 4) Ms. Cambridge Qq 33 (10), fol. 159B; and see Bahshal, Ta'rikh Wasit, ed. Gurguis 'Awwad, Baghdad 138711967,pp.44ult.-45sup. op. ') Awwalu 'abdin is missing in the translation; and see L.·A., s.v.hml, Beirut 1375'1956, p. 178, note 2. 6) The word lahu of the facsimile (p. 272, 1. 9) is missing here. 7) Ed. 'Awad Ibrahim and 'All al-Jarim, Cairo 1938, p. 137. 8) Comp. Dozy, Supplement aux dictionnaires arabes, s.v. khaysh; and see al-Tanukhi, al-Faraj ba'da I-shidda, Cairo 135711938,II, 39, 1.8: wa-ju'i1a Ii fil-zallali khayshun wa-stakthartu mina l-thalji li-shiddati I_harri. 9) Comp. Bahshal, op. cit., p.44 sup. 213 is rendered (p. 27, 1. 21) : BOEKBESPREKINGEN - ARABICA-ISLAM P.I59,11.6-7: is rendered (p. 28, 1. 10): 214 One fails to find the locust (sarancha) in the quoted passage (and see the same misinterpretation p. 27, 1.13 from bottom). The reading baha'im or bi-ha'im is, of course, wrong; it should be read: tukhbiruhu biha, thumma l-amru ilayhi : "you will report to him (about the three features [of the area]), then it is up to him to decide"; bilad sabkha means salty marshlands. Jamgotchian reads evidently "mu.htafir" and translates that the palace is to be ruined. The correct reading is, however, "muhta.dar" (properly, muhta.daran); al-Hajjaj expressed his fear that the palace was muhta.dar, i.e., occupied by some demons, who dwelt in it 10). The Friend of the Devil, 'Abdallah b. Hilal, is said to have entered (the court-K) walking proudly between two rows; Jamgotchian remarks that this passage (p.28, 1.12-13) is incomprehensible to him. (p.28, note 1). It may be remarked that khatara signifies a form of gait expressing pride, strength, haughtiness, elegance or selfconfidence; walking between two rows of courtiers, attendants or slaves signifies the high position of the person. This form of behaviour was frowned upon by the Prophet; special chapters in compilations or treatises were compiled to explain and comment on the utterances of the Prophet forbidding standing up in two rows upon the entrance of an important person. The Prophet is reported to have denounced this custom in very sharp terms: la'ana llahu man qamat lahu l-'abidu .sufufan, qiyaman 11). P. 158,1. 17: is rendered (p. 27, 1. 24) : The translation is however erroneous. (See the same misinterpretation p. 158, 1.3 from bottom = p.27, 1.10 from bottom); a'mar ahliha qalila means that the span of life of its people is short. Consequently al-Hajjaj answers: "This is (i.e., the lifetime-K) according to God's will". P. 159, I. 3: P. 159, 1. 9: is rendered (p. 28, 11.1-2): is rendered (p. 28, 1. 14): Jamgotchian's translation saying that the slave-girl favoured by al-Hajjaj was "smitten by a disaster" . led evidently to several errors in translation. The expression asabaha lamam denotes, however, here: "she was hit by a touch of insanity". According to Jamgotchian's translation 'Abdallah b. Hilal, the so-called Sadiq Iblis, orders al-Hajjaj to cut off her knots (ahilla 'anha, nop6U C6R3b C Heu) and al-Hajjaj responds: "I shall do it" (af' alu, sdelayu). But the correct reading is: a.hullu 'anha; it is an interrogative sentence: "Shall I untie her (i.e. her knot)?"; it is asked, of course, by 'Abdallah b. Hila1. Al-Hajjaj's answer is : "if' al", "do it". Jamgotchian's misunderstanding becomes graver after the Friend of the Devil, 'Abdallah b. Hilal, starts to act. A more accurate translation seems to be: "and in his hand was a sealed earthenware bottle". It is clear that a sealed bottle is more suitable for purposes of magic than a covered Jar. P. 159,1. 10: is rendered (p. 28, 1. 15): But masa.ha does not mean here clearing or cleaning; it denotes in fact surveying the palace in order to put the earthenware bottle in its midst. P. 159, I. 6: is rendered by him (p.28, 1.8) : This is, however, exactly the opposite: after the action of the Friend of the Devil the troubles of the slave-girl ceased; falamma zala ma kana biha should be rendered: "when the troubles (of which she suffered) ceased". 10) See about the privies occupied by demons and the injunction to invoke at the entrance of the privies Ibn 'Adiyy, al-Kamil fi I-du'afa', Ms. Ahmet III 29431, 67a ult.-67b, I. l : inna hadhihi I-.hushusha muhta.daratun fa-idha dakhalaha a.hadukum fa-I-yaqul: a' udhu bi-llahi mina I-khubthi wa-Ikhaba'ithi ... ; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-kubra, Hyderabad 1344 H, I, 96; L'A, S.v. h sh sh. ") See' al-Mu'afa b. 'Imran, Kitab al-zuhd, Zahiriyya, hadith 359 (majmu'a), fol. 246b; and comp. ib., the utterance of the Prophet: idha ra'aytumuni fa-Ia taqumu kama tu'azzimu I-a' ajimu ba'.duha ba'.dan; alJassas, Ahkam al-qur' an, Qustantiniyya 1335 (reprint), III, 95. But see a contradictory tradition: al-Zurqani, Shar.h al-mawahib al-Iaduniyya, Cairo 1325H, II, 134; ... qumna lahu 'ala arjulina .saffayni yuhayyihi kullu rajulin minna ... 215 P. 160, 1. 5 : BIBLIOTHECA ORIENTALIS XXXIX N° 1/2, Januari-Maart 1982 216 is rendered (p. 29, ll. 9-10) : But Ibn al-Bata'iJ:!.is an absolutely unknown person, who evidently does not exist. The correct reading is: min albata'~h and should be translated: "and he sent as a gift an elephant to al-Hajjaj; the elephant was carried from the BaWiJ:!. on a ship". 12) of Wasit 14); Zauba'a is a well-known devil 15). This explains why Zauba 'a - enjoying, as a devil, longevity - could meet al-Hajjaj and his successors, the governors of Wasit. * * P. 163,1. 18: is rendered (p. 33, 1. 5 from bottom) : It is a rather strange wish to be granted the reward of a horse. In fact, Bashshar b. Burd asks God to be given in return for his defamatory verses against the people of Wasit the reward of a warrior (murabU) stationed on the frontier. P. 160, 1. 16: is rendered (p. 29, 1. 5 from bottom) : But the governor of Basra, al-Hakam b. Ayyub, did not expel the Nabateans who had been working for him; he expelled in fact all the Nabateans who dwelt in the city, in the region of Basra, entrusted to him (fl 'amal/); whether they worked or not made no difference at all. P. 168,1. 15: is rendered (p. 40, 1. 10): The translation of the second hemistich is erroneous: there is nothing indicating that the young Arab was requested to accept what he and his kindred deserve. The verse should be translated: "I came to Abu Jubayra at Baratha, and he said: 'join your people, oh young man'''. The following verse:. v' says: "and take the chicken and eat it for sUDDer". P. 168, 1. 12: does not mean (p.40, 11.3-4) : He did ~ot ask for food, he asked for ~ riding beast (in order to return to his abode, as he was a Bedouin and stayed as a stranger in 'Iraq). The story of the young Bedouin with the governor of the Sawad caused 'Umar to impose on the people of the Sawad specific obligations. He ordered them to help people who had arrived at some place in the Sawad, and who were for some reason deprived of means for continuing their journey, and enable them to reach their destination by providing them with riding beasts. This is formulated as ".hamlu 1munqati'" (p.168, 1.17); Jamgotchian's translation: (p. 40, 1. 16), "to help the poor", seems to be inaccurate. P. 161,1. 17: is rendered (p. 31, ll. 5-10): But a person called Sa'ul al-Mu'abbadh does not in fact exist. The passage should be read: .. , wa-kana min akabiri that information about the practices of Nuruz and Mihrijan and their' origin could be asked of the Mubidh. Dhii lri'asatayn is, of course, al-Fa