Article languages: الإنجليزية
Find more Articles about:
Land_Property.pdf Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. XXXIV LAND PROPERTY AND JIHAD A discussion of some early traditions BY M.J. KISTER In memory of Prof. M. M. Plessner Traditions which deal with agriculture and the possession oflanded property, or with the question whether the acquisition of farms and estates in the territiories conquered by the Muslim forces in the early period is permitted or not, are often divergent and even contradictory. The diverse utterances seem to reflect ideological differences in the attitudes of Muslim scholars as to whether the Holy War, the conquests and the expansion of Islam go on, or whether there is to be a shift towards sedentarization, the cultivation of land and the setting up of a new class structure within the Muslim community. A study of some of these traditions may give us a clue for a better understanding of certain aspects of these problems and may help us in gaining some insight into the perceptions and views of the conflicting groups of hadith scholars, jurists and pious ascetics. I At a very early period reports attribute to the Prophet an instruction to the effect that farms or estates are not to be acquired in order to avoid wordly inclinations towards goods. This utterance: La tattakhidhu L-day'ata fa-targhabu fi L-dunya1) is fol~ 1) Abmad b. l;Ianbal, Musnad, ed. Abmad Mubammad Shakir, Cairo 1370/1950, V, 201, no. 3579 (and see the references of the editor and his comments); al-Bukhari, al-Ta)rfkh al-kabfr, Hyderabad 1377/1958, IV, 54, no. 1935; all;Iakim, al-Mustadrak, Hyderabad 1342, IV, 3221; al-Daylami, Firdaus al-akhbiir, MS. Chester Beatty 3037, fol. 185b; al-Tibrizi, Mishkiit al-mafiibf!t, Karachi 1967, LAND PROPERTY AND JIHAD 271 lowed in certain sources by an enigmatic note of the transmitter, the Companion of the Prophet, (Abdallah b. Mas'fid 2): uia-bi-rddhdna mii bi-riidhiina wa-bi-l-madinati mii bi-l-madinati=[. The meaning of the utterance is clarified in another tradition transmitted by the selfsame (Abdallah b. Mas'fid: fa-kayfa bi-miilin bi-riidhiina wa-bi-kadhii wa-bikadhii4), "so what about the property at Radhan and such and such (a location)"? (Abdallah b. Mas'fids rebuke is actually addressed at himself, because he acted contrary to the word of the Prophet and acquired for himself abundance of family and wealth"). al-Zuhd, Beirut 1398/1978, p. 29; al-Dhahabi, Miziin al-Bijawi, Cairo 1382/1963, II, 119, no. 3103; Ibn Abi cA~im. Kitiib al-zuhd, ed. cAbd al-CAliyy cAbd al-Harnid Hamid, Bombay, 1408/1987, pp. 101-102, no. 202 (and see the references of the editor). 2) See on him the detailed entry in EI2, s.v. Ibn Mas'fid a.-C. Vadet). 3) Al-Humaydi, al-Musnad, ed. Habibu l-Rahrnan al-Aizami, Beirut-Riyad, 1382, I, 67, no. 122; al-Tayalisi, Musnad, Hyderabad 1321, p. 50, no. 379; Yahya b. Adam, al-Khariij, ed. Ahmad Muhammad Shakir, Cairo 1347, p. 80, no. 354. 4) Abu CUbayd, al-Amwiil, ed. Muhammad Hamid al-Fiqi, Cairo 1353, p. 84, no. 221 inalui rasiilu lliihi bJ 'oni l-tabaqqurifi l-ahli wa-l-miilz); al- Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-kabir, ed. Hamdi cAbd al-Majid al-Silafi, n.p. 1400/1980, X, 259, no. 10493 (on the authority of cAbdaliah b. Mas'iud); and see the explanation of tabaqqur in Ibn al-Athir's al-Nihiiyafi gharibi l-hadith, ed. al-Zawi and al-Tanahi, Cairo 1383/1963, I, 44; and see al-Tayalisi, al-Musnad, p. 50, no. 380 (with the comment of the author: yaCnz al-kathrata fi l-mdli wa-l-wuldz); al-Munawi, Fayrj al-qadir, sharli al-jiimi': ai-saghir, Beirut 1391/1972, VI, 303, no. 9336 (and see the comments of al-Munawi on the tradition). 5) It is worthwile noting that there was a tendency to limit the number of children in the family in the period of early Islam. cAli is alleged to have said: "Anxiety is half way to decrepitude, and having a small family is one of the two manners of ease in life" (al-hammu nisfu l-harami wa-qillatu l_ciyiili ahadu l-yasiirayni), and comp. Ibn Said, al-Tabaqiit al-kubrii, Beirut 1377/1957, V, 136 (qillatu l_ciyiili ahadu l-yasiirayni attributed to Sa'fd b. al-Mussayyab; and see al-Suyuti, Jamcu 1jaiodmi", Cairo 1978, I, 608); al-Dhahabi, Mizdn al-i'tiddl, II, 481. The following utterance is attributed to the Prophet: "An extensive family and paucity of means are an affliction coupled with exertion" (jahdu l-baldri kathratu l_ciyiili maca qillati 1shay'z): al-Daylami, Firdaus, MS. Chester Beatty 3037, fo!' 70b; Ibn Hamza alHusayni al-Hanafl al-Dimashqi, al-Bayiin ioa-l-ta'rif fi asbiibi wuriidi l-hadithi l-sharif, Beirut 1400/1920, II, 264, no. 935; and see al-jarrahi, Kashfu l-khafii'i uia-muzilu l-ilbiis 'ommd shtahara mina l-aluidithi 'alii alsinati l-nds, Beirut 1301 (repr.) 1,335, no. 1080; and see ib. another version: kathratu l_ciyiili ahadu l-faqrayni, wa-qillatu l-'iyiili ahadu l-yasiirayni. A Sufi opinion about the problem is given in the utterance of Abu Sulayrnan al-Darani; according to him he who wants children is a fool: children no. 441; Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-i'tidal, ed. cAli Muhammad 272 M. J. KISTER The same tradition is recorded in Abu (Ubayd's Amwiil, in the chapter with the question of whether the acquisition of (or lending of) land in territories conquered by force is legal or not. Radhan was a place in the Sawad of (Iraq conquered by force ((anwatan, without a pact concluded with the conquered people-k); an estate at Radhan was acquired by (Abdallah b. Mas'fid and his name is in fact included in the list of the Companions of the Prophet, who acquired estates in the territories of kharii:J·6). will be helpful to him neither in this, nor in the next world. When one wants to eat, drink, or copulate they interrupt him and when one wants to worship God they distract him. (Abu Nuiaym, Hilyat al-auliyii", Beirut 1387/1967, IX, 264). A peculiar invocation of the believers on behalf of Christians and Jews contained a supplication for an abundance of children and wealth. (See e.g. Ibn cAsakir, Tatrikh. [tahdhib], ed. cAbd al-Qadir Badran, Damascus 1399/1979, IV, 250: Jii)a rajulun yahiidiyyun ild rasiili lldhi fa-qdla: dCu lliiha If, fa-qdla; asahha lliihu Jismaka waaidba harthaka wa-akthara mdlaka. And see: al-Bayhaqi, Shurab al-imiin, MS.Reisiilkiittap Mustafa Efendi [Sulaymaniyya], no. 219, fo1. 147a: can abdi lldhi bni cumara annahu marra bi-rajulin fa-sallama calayhi, fa-qila: innahu nasrdniyyun .. .fa-qala bnu cumara: akthara lliihu mdlaka wa-wuldaka. And see ai-Muttaqi I-Hindi, Kanz al'iimmal, Hyderabad 1370/1951, III, 133, no. 1178 [quoted from Ibn 'Asakir]: and see Muhammad b. Hibban al-Busti, Kitiib al-majriihin, ed. Mahmiid Ibrahim Zayid , Beirut 1396, II, 15 ult.-16, 1. 1: qiila rasiilu lldhi [!j idhd da'autum li-ahadin mina l-yahiidi toa-l-nasdrd fa-qiilii: akthara lldhu mdlaka wa-wuldaka; and see this tradition: al-Dhahabi, Mfziin al-i'tiddl, II, 401. Significant are the invocations of the Prophet on behalf of the believers. See e.g. al-Tabari , Tahdhfb al-dthdr, ed. Mahmud Muhammad Shakir, Cairo 1402/1982, I, 279, no. 467: lldhumma man ahabbani fa-mna'hu l-mdla uia-l-ioalad ... ; and see ib, p. 282, no. 472: alliihumma man amana bi ioa-saddaqani ioa-Salima anna maJi)tu bihi 1haqqu min 'indika fa-aqilla mdlahu wa-wuldahu toa-habbib ilayhi liqa)aka wa- CajJil lahu 1qadii?«, wa-man lam yu )min bi wa-lam yusaddiqni wa-lam ya'lam anna md Ji)tu bihi l-haqqu min cindika fa-akthir mdlahu uia-ioaladahu uia-atil cumrahu.; [see this tradition: alSuyutt, al-Hdioi li-l-fatduii, ed. Muhyi l-Din cAbd al-Hamid. Cairo 1378/1953, I, 519, inf.; and see ibid. 1,520 sup.]; comp. al-Tabari, Tahdhib, I, 293, no. 475; and see the invocation of Tawus, ib. p. 303, no. 514: alliihumma ajirni min kathrati l-mdli wa-l-waladi. And see al-Daylami, Firda us , Chester Beatty 3037, fo1. 187a, penult.: ... ld tatamannau kathrata l-mdli fa-inna kathrata l-mdli tukthiru l-dhuniib. And comp. Anonymous, Wa!iyyatu l-nabiyyi [!j li-Saliyyin, MS. Cambridge, Dd. 11.7, fol. 69a: ... ya 'aliyyu, idhd maqata lldhu 'obdan lam yanqu! min mdlihi shay/an uia-ld yursilu Jasadihi cillatan toa-ld zallatan ... And see the invocation of the Prophet in Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Tabari , Bishiirat al-mustafd li-shi'ati l-murtadii, Najaf 1383/1963, ... qdla r~siilu lldhi bJ: man ahabbani Ja-rzuqhu 1-caJaJa uia-l-kafdfa, usa-man abghadani faakthir miilahu wa-wuldahu. 6) See Abu Yiisuf, Kitdb al-iithdr, ed. Abu l-Wafa, Cairo 1355, p. 189, no. 859; us LAND PROPERTY AND JIHAD 273 The acquisinon of land and property in these territories was severely criticized by many of the orthodox scholars of Islam. The prevalent idea in the early Muslim community was that the conquered lands were to remain in the hands of the conquered population, who should be ruled by Muslim authorities; the revenues of the land, the jay), belonged to the Muslim community and had to be divided among its members. The transfer of the land of the khardj (or of thejizya-k) from the owner of the land-property to the newcomer (i.e. the Muslim, who arrived with the advancing army-k) was considered a humiliating act of debasement and a kind of regression in the status of the Muslim 7). Some scholars and jurists considered the purchase of land in territories conquered on a basis of a pact (~ul~an) as a concession (rukh~a); they condemned however the purchase of land in territories conquered by force (Canwatan) 8). There were however some scholars who considered the acquisition of khariij land as legitimate arguing that khariij is merely imposed on land, while jizya is imposed on the heads of the unbelievers"). They argued further that CDthman granted fiefs (aq,taCa) to some Companions of the Prophet in the Sawad of clraq 10). and see p. 190, note 1: the people mentioned in the text are: