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Call_yourselves.pdf "CALL YOURSELVES BY GRACEFUL by NAMES ... " M. J. KISTER The transition from Jahiliyya to Islam was acompanied by considerable changes in the ideas and perceptions of the traditional tribal society of the Arabs. Some concepts of the Jahiliyya did, however, survive among the Arab tribes who conquered the territories of the Persian and Byzantine empires. The struggle between the new ideas of Islam, often enriched by the adoption of the cultural values of the conquered peoples, with the persistence of concepts of the old Arab tradition left its traces in the prolific literature of the Hadith. The hard contest between these diverse ideas and trends is reflected by the conflicting utterances attributed to the Prophet or to his Companions. One of the topics for discussion was the problem of personal names. The contradictory traditions on this theme reflect the divergent attitudes of diff,erent groups in Muslim society. Goldziher dealt with some aspects of this problem in his "Gesetzliche Bestimmungen uber Kunja-Namen im Islam," study: 1 Brau scrutinized the cultic personal names in his detailed kultischen Personennamen" 2 "Die altnordarabischen and Bar- bara Stowasser-Freyer touched upon it in her Ph. D. thesis, "Formen des geselligen Umgangs und Eigentumlichkeiten des Sprachgebrauchs in der fruhislamischen stadtischen Gesellschaft Arabiens" (Nach Ibn Sa'd and Bukharil.3 The perusal of some additional data about proper names may help us to ,elucidate certain aspects of this problem. The Muslim concept of names is defined in an utterance of the Prophet recorded by Abu Dawud: 1 2 3 4 "You will be called on the Day 4 ZDMG 51 (1897), 256-266. WZKM 32 (1925), 31-59, 85-115. Der Islam 42 (1965), 26-40. Sahih sunan al-Mu$!afa, Cairo 1348, II, 307; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-kubra, Hyderabad 1355, IX, 306; al-Mundhiri, al-Targhib wa-l-tarhib, ed. Muhammad Muhyi I-Din 'Abd al-Hamid, Cairo 1381/1962, IV, 139, No. 2890; al-'Ayni, 'Umdat al-qari, [Istanbul 1308-111 x, 451; Ibn Hajar, Fath al-bari, Cairo 1325, x, 438. [3 ] of Resurrection by your names and the names of your fathers, therefore call yourselves by graceful names." The same emphasis on graceful names is apparent in two other traditions: "When you send to me a 5 messenger, send a man with a pleasant face and a beautiful name," and "He whom God granted a pretty face and a graceful name and put him in a place which is not disgraceful, he is the choicest man of God among His creature." 6 As is to be expected, tradition credited names into the Prophet with the changing of ugly and unpleasant to change it into a pretty one," rity of 'Urwa. 7 pleasant ones. "The Prophet, when he heard an odious name, used says a tradition reported on the authorecord a The collections of hadith and the Tabaqat compilations good deal of the changes of names performed by the Prophet. The first to be changed, as one would expect, were the names indicating worship of idols. 'Abd al-'Uzza was changed by the Prophet to 'Abd al-Rahman 8 or 'Abd Rabbihi 9 or 'Abdallah 10 or 'Abd al-'Aziz.ll 'Abd 5 Ibn Abi Hatim, 'Ilal al-hadith, Cairo 1343, Il, 329, No. 2508; al-Munawi, Fayd al-qadir, sharh al-jami' al-saghir, Cairo 1391/1972, I, 311, No. 511; 'Ali al-Qari, al-Asrar al-marfu'a fi I-akhbar al-maudu'a, ed. Muhammad al-Sabbagh, Beirut 1391/1971, 437; al-Samarqandi, Bustan al-'arifin (on margin of Tanbih al-ghafilin), Cairo 1347, 155 inf.; 'Ali b. Burhan al-Din, Insan al-'uyun (= al-Sira al-halabiyya), Cairo 1351/1932, I, 94; aI-Muttaqi I-Hindi, Kanz al-'ummal, Hyderabad 1377/1958, VI, 22-3, Nos. 196-7; alSuyUti, al-La'ali al-m~nu'a fi l-ahOdith al-mau{iu'a, Cairo n. d., I, 112-3; al-Nawawi, Kit. al-adhkiir al-muntakhab min kaliim sayyid al-abriir, Cairo 1323, 127. 6 7 8 9 Al-Shaukani, al-Fawa'id al-majmu'a, ed. 'Abd al-RaJ,unin al-Mu'allami alYamini, Cairo 1380/1960, 221; :AIi I-Qari, op. cit., 437; al-Raghib alI~fahani, Muhii{iarat al-udaba', Beirut 1961, III, 336. Al-'Ayni, op. cit., x, 451; al-Munawi, op. cit., v, 144, No. 6727; al-Mundhiri, op. cit., IV, 140, No. 2895. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqiit, Beirut 1377 /1957, III, 474; al-Balidhuri, Futiih al-buldan, ed. 'Abdallah Anis al-Tabba' and 'Umar al-Tabba', Beirut 1377/1957, 125; al-Fisi, al-'Iqd al-thamin, ed. Fu'ad Sayyid, Cairo 1385/1966, V, 371, line 1; Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr, al-Isti'ab, ed. 'Ali MuI;1ammadal-Bijiwi, Cairo 1380/ 1960, p. 832, No. 1408 and 838, No. 1432; Nur aI-Din al-Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, Beirut 1967, VIII, 50, 54; Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi, al-Istibsar fi nasabi I-SaJ:raba in al-~ar, ed. 'Ali Nuwayhic;!, eirut 1392/1972, 319. m B Ibn Hajar, al-ISaba, Cairo 1328, II, 388, No. 5074. [4 ] Shams was changed by the Prophet to 'Abdallah." 'Abd Kulal was changed to 'Abd al-Rahman," 'Abd al-Jann to 'Abdallah." 'Abd alKa'ba to 'Abd al-Rahman IS or 'Abdallah." The Banii 'Abd ManAf were renamed by the Prophet and called Banii 'Abdallah." 'Abd alHajar (or al-Hijr) was altered to 'Abdallah," 'Abd 'Amr into 'Abd al-Rahman.> The substitution of 'Abdallah for Bujayr 20 as recorded 10 AbU Nu'aym al-Isfahani, lJilyaJ al-auliya', Beirut 1387/1967 (reprint), I, 365; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 871, No. 1480; Anonymous, History 01 the prophets (Ar.), Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 1510, fol. 234a; Ibn Hajar, al-l~aba, II, 280, No. 4557. 11 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1006, No. 1700; Ibn l;Iajar, al-lsiiba, II, 428, Nos. 5240-41. 12 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 884, No. 1496; Ibn l;Iajar, al-l$aba, II, 292, No. 4602 and 293, No. 4606. 13 N1ir aI-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 55; Ibn Qutayba, al-Ma'ari/, ed. al-Sawl, Cairo 1390/1970 (reprint), 132. 14 Al-Zubayr b. Bakkar, Iamharat nasab quraysh, Ms. Bodley, Marsh. 384, fo1. l06b; MughultiiY, al-Zahr al-bdsim ii sirat Abi l-Qiisim, Ms. Leiden, Or. 370, fol. 145a; Anonymous, al-Ta'rikh ol-muhkam Ii man intasaba ilii l-nabiyyi ~alla lliihu 'alayhi wa-sallam, Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 8653, fols. 115b, ult.-1l6a sup.; Ibn Hajar, al-l~aba, II, 325, No. 4753; Ibn al-Kalbi, lamhara, Ms.Br.Mus., Add. 23297, fol. 27b inf 15 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., p. 844, Nos. 1446-7 and 824, No. 1394; Anonymous, al-Ta'rikh al-muhkam, Ms., fol. 112b; Mus'ab b. 'Abdallah alZubayri, Nasab Quraysh, ed. Levi-Provencal, Cairo 1953, 265, line 17 (his name was 'Abd 'Amr); 'Ali b. Burhan al-Din, op. cit., I, 312 ('Abd 'Amr, or 'Abd al-Ka'ba, or 'Abd al-Harith). 16 Al-Fasi, op. cit., V, 208; Ibn Qutayba, al-Ma'iiril, 73; al-Majlisi, BiMr alanwar (lithogr. ed.) VIII, 272, line 5. 17 Niir al-Din aI-Haythami, op, cit., VIII, 53; comp. Ibn Hajar, al-lsiiba, II, 431, No. 5263 ('Abd Manif changed into 'Abdallah). 18 Fadlullah l-Jilani (= al-Jilani), F adlu lliihi l-samad ii tau{ii~ al-adab 01muirad, 1;I~ 1388/1969, II, 283, No. 811; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 943, No. 1596,and 895, No. 1524. 19 Ntir al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 53; al-Mu'ifa b. Zakariya, al-Jalis al-~iilil;!al-If.ali wa-l-anis al-nii#b al-shiifi, Ms. Ahmet III, No. 2321, fol. 113a; al-Fasawi, al-Mctrila wa-l-tarikh, Ms. Esad Ef. 2391, fol. 134b, sup.; al-Waqidi, al-Maghiizi, ed. Marsden Jones, London 1966, I, 82 (he was however addressed 'Abd al-Ilah, because the name of Musaylima was al-Rahman), 20 See Goldziher, Gesetzliche Bestimmungen, 257, line 7. [ 5] by al-Baladhuri the idol Biijir.22 21 may have been connected with the odious name of It was deemed equally desirable to change the names of persons and tribes in which mention of devils or demons could be found. The name of the Banii Shaytan was changed to Banii 'Abdallah; b. QUI1 was altered to 'Abdallah b. QUI1. 24 23 Shaytan 'Umar changed the name al-Ajda', he of Masriiq b. al-Ajda' to Masrfiq b. 'Abd al-Rahman; said, is the name of the Devil. 25 Another man was called Hubab; the Prophet changed his name to 'Abdallah, stating that Hubab is the name of the DeviJ.26 It apparently denotes an idol, as assumed by Wellhausen." A rather humorous story narrates another version by which the name Hubab was changed unintentionally: A man called Hubab negotiated with a bedouin for the purchase of two camels; he succeeded in getting the camels and set off with them. When he was later brought into the presence of the Prophet, the Prophet address.ed him as "Surraq," "the thief." The man refused to change this name, because it was the Prophet who granted it to him." The name of 'Abd al-Harith 21 Ansiib al-ashriii, ed. Muhammad Hamidullah, Cairo 1959, I, 233; al-Tabari, Dhayl al-mudhayyal, Cairo 1358/1939,59. 22 See L'A, s. v. bjr; and see Ibn al-Kalbi, al-Asniim, ed. Ahmad Zaki Pasha, Cairo 1343/1924,63. 23 Ibn Wahb, Jami', ed. J. David-Weill,Cairo 1939,11, lines 4-6. 24 Niir al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 51 sup.; Ibn Hajar, al-lsiiba, II, 358,No. 4890. 25 Ibn Hanbal, 'I/al, ed. Talat Kocigit and Ismail Cerrahoglu, Ankara 1963, I, 9, No. 31; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Cairo 1349, II, 405; L'A, s. v. jd'; Ibn l;Iajar, al-Isiiba, III, 492, No. 8406;Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., v, 76. 26 Al-Baladhuri, Futiih, 125; Nirr al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 50; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 6, lines 12-1~; 7, lines 5-7; 9, lines 11-13, 16-19; 10, lines 1-2; al-Fasawi, op. cit., fol, 134b sup.; Ma'rnar b. Rashid, Iiimi' (attached to 'Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, ed. Habibu l-Rahman al-A'zami, Beirut 1392/1972), XI, 40, No .19849; Anonymous, History, Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 1510, fol, 233a; L'A, s. v, hbb; and see al-Suytiti, al-Durr al-manthiir ii l-tafsir bi-l-ma'thia, Cairo 1314, I, 48 (the name of Iblis at the time when God created Adam was Hubab), 50 (the name of Iblis was al-Harith; in other traditions his name was 'Azazil), 27 J. Wellhausen, Reste Arabischen Heidentums, Berlin 1887,171,n. 2. 28 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 683, No. 1132; Ibn l;Iajar, al-lsiiba, II, 20, No. 3122. [6] was changed by the Prophet to 'Abdallah; Heaven was al-Harith.?'' He frightened 29 the name of Iblis in when she became Hawwa' pregnant by telling her that she would give birth to a beast and promised that she would have a normal human baby if she gave it his name; he lied, claiming that his name was 'Abd al-Harith (not al-Harith), The baby born was indeed normal, was named 'Abd al-Harith, but died as a child." It is of interest that this very name, al-Harith, the name of Iblis and apparently the name of an idol, survived in the period of the Prophet and was even recommended by the Prophet, according to one tradition." widest circulation. It was not only the name of the Devil which was prohibited. His kunya, Abu Murra,v was also considered disagreeable and was changed It subsequently became one of the names with the by the Prophet to Abu Hulwa." God, 3~ Murra is the name most disliked by stated th.e Prophet. The name of a jinni who embraced Islam, 29 Ibn l;Iajar, al-Isiiba, II, 374, No. 4983; 388, No. 5068; and see ibid, 387-8. 30 AI-Majlisi, Bi~iir al-anwiir, Tehran 1390, LXJII, 241, 247; Anonymous, History, Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 1510, fol. 4b; aI-ShibIi, Akiim al-mariiin n gharii'ibi l-akhbiir wa-ahkiim al-idnn, ed. 'Abdallah Muhammad al-Sadiq, Cairo 1376, 156; aI-'I~mi, Simt al-nuiiim al-iawiili, Cairo 1380, I, 35; Brau, op. cit., 56. 31 Muqatil, Toisir, Ms. Ahrnet III, 741, fol. 140a; and see al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Hyderabad 1342, II, 545; Ibn 'Asakir, Ta'rikh (Tahdhib), Damascus 1349, VI, 353; al-Suyiiti, al-Durr, III, 151-2 (in one of the reports, 151 ult., the Devil advised Hawwa' to name the baby 'Abd Shams); al-Nuwayri, Nlhiiyat ol-arab, Cairo n.d., XIII, 30; al-Shatibi, al-Iumdn Ms. Br.Mus., Or. 1555, fol. 8b (Adam tries in vain to convince Hawwa' to name the child 'Abdallah); Ibn Kathir, al-Bidiiya wa-l-nihiiya, Beirut-e-al-Riyad 1966, I, %; al-Tabari, Taisir, ed. Mahmud and Ahmad Shakir, Cairo 1958, XIII, 306-314, Nos. 15510-15525; Ibn 'Asakir, op. cit., VI, 353; Muhammad N~ir al-Din al-Albani, Silsilat al-ahiidit]: al-da'ija wa-l-maudii'a, Damascus 1384, No. 342. 32 Ibn Hajar, al-lsiiba, II, 288, No. 4588; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., page 6, lines 1617; al-Munawi, op. cit., I, 169, No. 207; Abu Dawtid, op. cit., II, 307; alJilani, op. cit., II, 286, No. 814 ... ; etc. 33 See Ibn al-Athir, al-Murassa' ed. C. F. Seybold, Weimar 18%, 97: .. , abii murrata huwa ashharu kunii iblis ... ,' and see al- Majlisi, op. cit., LXIII, 226; al-Zarnakhshari, Rabi' al-abrdr, Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 6511, fol. 104a, sup. 34 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 8 ,line 10. 35 Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 286, No. 814; Ibn Wahb, op, cit., page 6, line 17; 8. line 18; 9, line 1,4-7. [7 ] Samhaj, (a mare thin in the belly) was changed by the Prophet to 'Abdallah." Durays is mentioned as a name of the Devil," but this is not recorded in any other source; the name must have been felt to be odious: The Prophet bought a horse named al-Daris and changed its name to al-Sakb." The ominous name Ghaylan, which is reminiscent of the demons, was changed to 'Abdallah; 39 'Abd Sharr was changed to 'Abd Khayr," Haram was altered into Halal." In the overwhelming majority of the cases quoted above the odious name was changed to 'Abd al-Rahman or 'Abdallah. These two names, belonging to the type of ta'bid names, in which the word "t abd" is attached to one of the names of God, were a clear indication of the new Islamic spirit of obedience and submission to Allah. This trend was given expression in the utterance of the Prophet: "In naming fa(your children - K.) use the expression 'abd" (idhii sammaytum 'abbidil).42 Among this group of names 'Abdallah and 'Abd al-Rahman were considered the best. "The names most liked by God are 'Abdallah and 'Abd al-Rahman," says an utterance of the Prophet." This idea brought about changes in the names which served in Islam as attributes of Allah. Jabbar was changed to 'Abd al-Jabbar.v al-Qayyum to 'Abd al-Oayyum," 'Aziz to 'Abd al-'Aziz 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 46 and to 'Abd al-Rahman." An 44 45 46 47 Ibn Na~ir al-Din, Jiimi' al-dthdr, Ms. Cambridge, Or. 913, fol. 358b; alDamiri, Hayii: al-hayawdn, Cairo 1383fl963, I, 208. Rijiil al-Kashshi, Karbala' n.d., 156 inf. L'A, s.v. drs, Nilr al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., Vlll, 54. Ibn l.Iajar, al-Isdba, II, 388, No. 5072. Nut al-Din al-Haytharni, op. cit., Vlll, 51. Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., Vlll, 50. Al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 306; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 834, No. 1419; Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., vnr, 49-50; al-Mundhiri, op. cit., IV, 139, No. 2891; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 9, line 3--4; al-Munawi, op. cit., I, 168, No. 206; Ibn Majah, op. cit., II, 404; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, II, 288, No. 4588. Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, II, 387, No. 5063. Ntir al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., Vlll, 54. Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, II, 428, No. 5242. Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 834, No. 1419; Ntir al-Din l-Haythami, op. cit., Vlll, 49-50; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VI, 50. [8 ] utterance of the Prophet gives explicitly the reason why the name alHakam and the kunya AbU l-Hakam are prohibited. "Do not name (your children) al-Hakam, nor Abu l-Hakam, as God is the hakam," b. Sa'id; Shurayh." The abhorrence which the pious felt with regard to using names attributed to the Prophet: 51 49 48 Consequently, the name of al-Hakam b. Sa'id was changed to 'Abdallah the kunya of Hani', Abu l-Hakam, was changed to AbU denoting the attributes of Allah gave rise to an early tradition, recorded by Ma'mar b. Rashidand "The names most detested by God are Khalid and Malik." Kingdom and eternal exis- tence are, of course, attributes of God and man is not permitted to apply them in his name. It is of interest that another version of this tradition states: takdhabu l-asmai "The most deceiving names are Khalid and Malik" khiilidun wa-malikuns." The kunya AbU Malik is Abu 'Isa, listed among the four kunyas prohibited by the Prophet: when the child is named Muhammad." AbU l-Hakam, AbU Malik and Abu l-Oasim: the last one in the case Contrary to the Bedouin custom to call their slaves by nice names and to call their own children by disagreeable names,5f the Muslims 48 49 Ma'mar b. Rashid. op. cit., XI, 42, No. 19859; al-Majlisi, op. cit., LXXVI, 175; al-'Ayni, op. cit., X, 457 inf. Anonymous, al-Ta'rikh l-muhkam, Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 8653, fol. 67b, inf.; Nfir al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 53; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 355, No. 523; Ibn al-Kalbi, Jamhara, fol. 14a. Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 283, No. 811; Ibn al-Athir, al-Nihdya, s.v. hkm; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1688, No. 3031; 'Ali b. Balaban, al-lhsdn [i taqrib $al;Ii~ Ibn I;libbiin, Ms.Br.Mus., Add. 27519, fol. 117b; Ibn al-I;l1ijj, alMadkhol, Beirut 1972, I, 120; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VI, 49; al-Nawawi, op. cit., 129 sup. Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 42, No. 19860; al-'Ayni, op. cit., X, 457 ult. -8. Ibn Abi l;Iatim, op. cit., No. 2525. Al-'Ayni, op. cit., X, 450; about the use of the kunya Abu l-Qasim see e.g. Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 44, No. 19867; Abu DawUd, op. cit., II, 309310; al-'Ayni, op, cit., X, 449; al-Tahawi, Sharb maiini l-iithiir, ed. Muhammad Zuhri l-Najjar, Cairo 1388/1968, IV, 335-341. Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, op. cit., III, 339; aHlaliJ.1i, Subul al-hudii wa-l-rashiid [i sirat khayri l-'ibiid (~ al-Sira al-shiimiyya), ed. Mu~tafa 'Abd al-Wahid, 50 51 52 53 54 [9 ] were required to give their children graceful names. The Prophet stated that the obligation of a father towards his child is to give him a graceful name and a good education. 55 The Prophet used to ask about the name of a man whom he met and was glad to hear that his name was a nice one. 56 One should be careful to select a beautiful name, as an angel and a devil attend the birth of a child; the angel advises to give him a graceful name, the devil recommends a disagreeable one." The name of the child constitutes a proof for the intelligence of his father. 58 There is a very dose relationship between the meaning of the name and the character of the child who is giv.en it. The name chosen by the father thus has considerable bearing on the fate and life of the child. 59 A name fits the character of the person named, by decree of God. The Prophet was given names which were precisely fitting: Muhammad and Ahmad. The name and the person named. says Ibn Qayyim, were in this case as dosely connected to each other as the body is to the soul." The name Muhammad, for instance is derived from the name of God as attested by the verse of Hassan : wa-shaqqa lahii min ismihi li-yuiillahii : [a-dhii l-tarshi mahmiidun wa-hiulhii muhammadii And He derived (a name) from His name in order to honour him: thus the Owner of the Throne is Mahmud (Praised) and this one is Muhammad." Cairo 1392/1972, I, 326; Ibn Durayd, ol-lshtiqaq, ed. 'Abd al-Salam HiirUn, Cairo 1378/1958, 4. Ntir al-Din al-Haytharni, op. cit., VIII, 47. Ntir al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 47; al-'Ayni, op. cit., x, 197. Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, op. cit., III, 336. Al-Raghib al-Isfahani, op. cit., III, 336. Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyya, Ziid al-ma'iid ti hadyi khayri l-'ibad, Beirut n.d. II, 5; Majd al-Din al-Fayruzabadi, Sijr al-sa'dda, Cairo 1382/1962, 88. Ibn Qayyim, op. cit., II, 5. See A. Fischer, Muhammad and Ahmad, die Narnen des arabischen Propheten, Leipzig 1932, 20; al-Suyuti, al-Khasdis al-kubrii, ed. Muhammad Khalil Harras, Cairo 1386/1967, I, 194-5; al-Bayhaqi Dalii'il al-nubuwwa, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad 'Uthman, al-Madina al-munawwara 1389/ 1969, I, 93, 122; Hassan b. Thabit, Diwan, ed. W. N. 'Arafat, London 1971, I, 306. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 [ 10] The name of Muhammad was given to the Prophet as a good omen." The name Uhud was given to the mountain by God, pointing to the people who believed in the unity of God and to the Prophet who summoned people to this faith. 63 * The fa'l, the omen, either good or bad, become the leading principle in the choice of names. It had, of course, to be distinguished from tiyara, which was interdicted by Islam as a practice of the Jahiliyya, The Prophet is said to have disliked augury, but was pleased by the use of good omens.v' "There is no tiyara, augury, and the best of it is the [a'l, the good omen." The Prophet was asked about the fa'i and he defined it as "a good ($iili~) word heard by one of you." 65 Ibn Hajar devotes a lengthy and detailed discussion to the problem of the relation betwe.en tiyara and fa'l, stressing that the meaning of tiyara is negative and undesirable while that of fa'l is acceptable." "The truest (kind of) augury is the omen," says the Prophet." The favourable attitude of the Prophet towards omens of names is mirrored in a tradition about the milking of a camel. Three men ~olunteered to milk the camel. The Prophet disapproved of the first because of his name Murra, and of the second because of his name Harb; he ordered the third to milk because of his name: Ya'ish." Another version of 62 63 Fischer, op. ctt., 18. Majd al-Din al-Fayruzabadi, aI-Maghiinim al-mutiiba [i ma'ii1im Tiiba, ed. Hamad al-Jasir, al-Riyad 1389/1%9, 10. 64 Al-Munawi, op. cit., v, 231, No. 7101; Ibn Hajar, FatJ:zal-biiri, x, 167, lines 3-4. 65 Ibn Hajar, Eath, x, 166-7; aI-'Ayni, op. cit., x, 197. 66 Ibn Hajar, Fath, x, 167-8; cf. al-Munawi, op. cit., I, 312, line 10 seq. 67 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 93, line 16 (asdaqu l-tiyarati l-fa'lu); Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., x, 406, No. 19512 (the same version); Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 280, No. 379 (asdaqu l-tayri I-fa'lu). This tradition was misread by T. Fahd in E/2, s.v. fa'[ (asdaqa l-tayru l-fa'la) and consequently misinterpreted. 68 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 96, line 10-14; Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 41, No. 19854; Ntlr al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., Vlll, 47; 'Ali b. Burhan al-Din, op. cit., I, 94; Ibn Qayyim, op. cit., II, 5; Majd al-Din al-Fayruzabadi, Siir aI-sa'iida, 88; al-Suyfiti, Tanwir al-hawiilik, sharh 'alii Muwaua: Miilik, Cairo n.d. lll, 140-1; al-Samarqandi, op. cit., 157; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. [ 11] this story reflects the tendency of separation of augury, tiyara, which should be rejected, from ial, acting according to the principle of "omen nomen", which should be permitted. Two persons volunteered to milk a she-camel: al-Musawir and Khaddash, Both were disqualified by the Prophet. Then 'Umar asked the Prophet: "Shall I speak or remain silent?" The Prophet said: "Remain silent and I shall tell you what you wanted (to say)" 'Urnar said: "Then tell me, 0 Messenger of God." The Prophet said: "You thought that is was augury." He (i.e. the Prophet - K.) said: "There is no bird except His bird, there is no good except His good; but I like the good omen." 69 The evident intention of this tradition is to reject augury and to legitimize the practice of fa'i. It may be mentioned that the names Harb and Murra mentioned above as a bad fa'l are included in the list of the names disliked by the Prophet: Harb, Murra, Jamra, Hanzala, 70 Kalb and Kulayb." In another case the Prophet preferred a man called Najiya to two other men (evid.ently with unpleasant names) and let him lead his camel. 72 The Prophet chose the way of "Marhab" for reasons of good omen when on his way to attack Khaybar in preference to all other ways proposed to him (al-Hazn, Shas, Halib).73 When th.e Prophet went out on his hiira to Medina he met Burayda al-Aslami with a group of seventy riders of the clan of Sahm. The Prophet drew the omens from these names: Burayda - barada amrunii wa-soluha, firm and just is our affair; As/am - we are safe; sahm - our arrow came 69 70 71 72 73 cit., 459, No. 694; 1588, No. 2820; Ibn l:Iajar, al-I$iiba, III, 669; cf. Anonymous, al-Dhakhira wa-kashju l-tauqi' /i-ahli l-basira, Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 3922, fo1. 52b: ... al-asmii'u l-diillatu 'alii l-nuhiisi [a-mithlu harbin wa-jahdin wa-kalbin wa-namirin wa-/;Iimiirin wa-abi lahabin wa-abi /-biirithi wa-abi murrata wa-abi shihiibin wa-mii ashbahahii ... Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 97, lines 1-7; cf. 'Ali b. Burhan al-Din, op. cit., I, 94. Ibn al-Hajj, op. cit., I, 122. Al-Munawi, op. cit., VI, 342, No. 9523. Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 284, No. 812; Niir al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 47; and see about the name Dhakwiin changed into Najiya : Ibn 'Abd alBarr, op. cit., IV, 1522, No. 2650; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, III, 541, No. 8642. Majd aI-Din al-Fayruzabadi, al-Maghiinim, 376. [ 12] out,t- When the Prophet entered Medina he heard a man shouting: "Ya Ghiinim"; the Prophet drew the following omen from the name: "We have earned without effort." 75 When Suhayl came to the Prophet at Hudaybiyya to negotiate peace, the Prophet drew from his name the following omen: "Suhayl has come to you, your affair has become easy." 76 When the Prophet heard a man in his army addressing some- one: "Yii Hasan", he said: "From your mouth we have taken the good omen." 77 When the Prophet once went out for some of his needs he was pleased to hear (incidentally) someone addressing another person: "Ya NajilJ, ya Rashid." 78 Disagreeable names caused, of course, misfortune and had to be altered. When a man came to 'Umar and told him that his name was Jamra (= burning coal), the son of Shihab (= bright blaze), from the tribal group of Hurqa (= fire), staying in Harrat al-nar (= the stony tract of fire), in the part of it called Dhat al-laza (= that of the fiery 74 Al-Samhiidi, Wafii'u l-waiii, ed. Muhammad Muhyi I-Din 'Abd al-Hamid, Cairo 1374/1955, I, 243; Ibn 'Abd ai-Barr, op. cit., 185, No. 217; al-Kazarimi, Sirat al-nabi, Ms.Br.Mus., Add. 18499, fol. 139a (noteworthy is the formulation of the phrase: kiina Iii yatatayyaru, wa-kii:a yalafii' alu); alZandawaysiti, Rauda: aI-'ulamii', Ms.Br.Mus., Add. 7258, fol, 277a. AI-Riighib al-Isfahani, op. cit., I, 144. Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 670 No. 1106; al-Raghib al-Isfahani, op. cit., I, 144; al-Shaukani, Nay/ al-autiir, shari: muntaqii l-akhbar, Cairo 1380/1961, VIII 47; cf. al-Tabari, Dhayl al-mudhayyal, 17: nabbilii sahlan [a-innahu sahlun. Ibn Abi l-Dunya, aI-lshriif [i maniizil al-ashriii, Ms. Chester Beatty 4427, fol. 74b; al-Raghib al-Isfahani, op, cit., I, 144; al-Sakhawi, al-Maqiisid aIhasana, ed. 'Abdallah Muhammad al-Sadiq, Cairo 1375/1956, 27, No. 40; al-Munawi, op. cit., I, 212, No. 290 (see ibid, inf. the additional stories about omens drawn by the Prophet: when he went out against Khaybar he heard 'Ali exclaiming "yii khudro"; he said: "we took the omen from your mouth, let us go out against Khudra" (= Khaybar]. No sword was drawn (by the Muslims] in this expedition. And see the opinion of alZamakhshari about the difference between tiyara and flil); ai-Muttaqi l-Hindi, op. cit., x, 66, No. 511; al-Shaukani, Nayl, VII, 194. AI-Muniiwi, op. cit., V, 229, No. 7089; Yilsuf h. Musii I-Hanafi, al-Mu'tasar min al-mukhtasar min mushkil aI-iithiir, Cairo 1362, II, 206; and see alJilani, op. cit., II, 285; Ibn al-Jauzi al~Wafii bi-ahwdli l-mustaiii, ed. Mu~tafii 'Abd, Cairo 1386/1966, II, 465. 75 76 77 78 r 13 ] blaze), 'Umar ordered him to return to his family because they were caught by fire. It happened as 'Umar foretold." The Prophet indeed changed the name Shihab to Hisham." The rough Jahili character of names is emphasized in a dubious tradition about the conversion of AbU Sufra to Islam. He came clad in a yellow robe and presented himself as ~lim (= the oppressing) b. Sariq (= the thief) b. Shihab (= the blazing fire) ... the scion of Julanda who used to snatch the passing ships. "I am a king," said Abu Sufra. The Prophet advised him gently to "leave the thief and the oppressor" and named him Abu Sufra (= the man of the yellow suit). Thereupon Abu Sufra decided to name his new born female-baby Sufra." AntiMuhallabid traditions wholly refute this story, stating that he did not meet the Prophet at all, that he was captured during he ridda, etc.; one of the traditions claims that he was uncircumcised and did not even know the meaning of circumcision. A man with the name Hazn (= hard, rugged ground) was told by the Prophet to change it to Sahl (plain, easy ground). His answer reflects the Jahiliyya spirit: "The plain is trodden and despised" (or in another version: "I am not going to change a name given to me by my father").82 * 79 Al-Suytlti, Tanw;r al-hawiilik, III. 141; Ibn Qayyim, op, cit., II, 5; alSamarqandi, op. cit., 157; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, I, 275; No. 1294; Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 43, No. 19864; Ibn Wahb, op, cit., 10, lines 2-5; alRaghib al-Isfahani, op. cit., III, 340; Ibn al-Jauzi, Sirat 'Umar b. al-Khauiib, Cairo 1342/1924, 63; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh nahj al-baliigha, ed. Muhammad Abu l-Fadl Ibrahim, Cairo 1%1, XII, 103; al-Nuwayri, op. cit., III, 144; al-Mandstk wa-amiikin turuqi l...f;rajj. dv Hamad al-Jasir, al-Riyad 1389/ e 1969, 518; al-Bakri, Mu'jam md sta'jam, ed. Mu~tafli al-Saqa, Cairo 1364/ 1945, I, 436-7. AbU DiiwUd, op. cit., II, 308; al-Mundhiri, op, cit., IV, 141; al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 298, No. 825; Ntlr al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 51; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1541, No. 2685; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 308. Al-Samarqandi, op. cit., 156; Ibn Hajar, al-l~aba, III, 500, No. 8454, 535, No. 8633; IV, 108, No. 652; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., ff)), 101. Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 309, No. 841; Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 41, No. 19851; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 401, No. 560; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 8, line 80 81 82 [ 14 ] Some names changed by the Prophet are connected with the Meccan aristocracy in the period of the Jahiliyya, The disagreeable name Harb (= war) was changed into Silm." 'Ali intended to name his sons Harb; the Prophet himself named them Hasan, Husayn, Muhassin; these names correspond to the names of Aharon's sons: Shubbar, Shubbayr, Mushabbir, As the position of 'Ali in relation to the Prophet corresponds in Shi'a faith to the position of Aharon to Moses, it is plausible to consider this tradition as a Shi'i one.> According to one tradition the Prophet disapproved of the name Harb and described it as one of the worst names." As one of the ancestors of the Umayyads was Harb, this tradition might have been rather unpleasant for the ruling dynasty. One of the Jahili names changed by the Prophet was al-Walid. This name was a common one among the Bami Makhziim and the Prophet remarked that the Banu Makhztim nearly turned al-Walid into a deity (rna kiidat banii makhziimin ilIii an taj'a!a l-waiida rabban; in another version: hananani. The Prophet changed the name of al-Walid b. abi Umayya to al-Muhajir b. abi Umayya.w the name of al-Walid b. alWiilid b. al-Walid b. al-Mughira into 'Abdallah b. al-Walid." The 83 84 85 86 87 10; Abu Diiwud, op. cit., II, 308; al-'Ayni, op, cit., x, 450, 452; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 307; al-Muttaqi I-Hindi, op. cit., xv, 319, No. 898; Mus'ab b. 'Abdallah, op. cit., 345; al-Nawawi, op .cit., 128 inf.; al-Qastallani, Irshiid ai-sari, Cairo 1326, IX, 111; Muhammad Hasan al-Muzaffar, Dalii'i/ alsidq, n.p., 1373, III, II 29 inf. Al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 308; al-Mundhiri, op. cit., IV, 141; al-Sha'rani, Lawaqi~ al-anwiir, Cairo 1381/1961,756, line 2. Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 296, No. 823; al-Samarqandi, op. cit., 155 inf.; Anonymous, al-To'rikh. al-muhkam, fol. 41a sup.; Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr, op, cit., 384, No. 555; Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 52; al-Munawi, op. cit., IV, 111, No. 4710; and see Israel Oriental Studies 2 (1972),223, n. 37. See e.g. al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 306; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 8, line 18-9; ... wa-sharruhii harbun wa-murra; al-Jilani, op. cit., 755. Al-Zubayr b. Bakkar, op. cit., fol. 138b; al-Fasi, op, cit., VII, 291-2; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba. III, 465, No. 8253; III, 636, No. 9142; cf. about the name 'Amr changed into Muhajir : Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1454, No. 2506; Ibn Hajar; al-Isiiba, III, 466, No. 8256. AI-Zubayr b. Bakkiir, op. cit., fol. 146a; Ibn 'Asakir, op. cit., VI, 230; Ibn [ 15 ] interdiction of the Prophet was often associated with the statement that al-Walid was a name of one of the tyrannical Pharaohs and with a prophecy that there will come a ruler with the name al-Walid, who will be worse for the community than Pharaoh." The question as to which one of the Umayyad rulers was meant by the Prophet and the problem of the character of the Prophet's interdiction to use the name al-Walid were extensively discussed by scholars of Qadith.89 The disagreeable name al-'A~ (close in association to al-'A~i) was changed into al-Muti' 90 and 'Abdallah."! 'A~iya was changed into Jamila."" It is noteworthy that the names of al-'A~ were common among the 'Abd Shams, the tribal group of the Umayyads; al-'A~, AbU l-·A~. al-Ts, and Abii l-'I~ were the sons of Umayya and were called al-A'yas." It is sufficient to mention al-Hakam b. al-'A~, the stubborn enemy of the Prophet. to understand what the change of the name al-'A~ could mean for the ruling descendants of Marwan b. al-Hakam b. al-'A~. * 88 Hajar, al-Isiiba, II, 380, No: 5024; III, 640, No. 9151; Anonymous, al-Tarikh al-mu{lkam, fol, 136a. See al-Muttaqi I-Hindi, op. cit., XI, 237, No. 1074; Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 43, No. 19861; al-Suytlti, al-Ladli al-masnii'a, I, 107-111; al-Qastallani, op. cit., IX, 115; Ibn al-Athir, al-Nihiiya, s.v, hnn, See al-'Ayni, op. cit., X, 454; and see al-Tabarsi, I'liim al-warii bi-a'liim al-hudii, ed, Akbar al-Ghaffari, Tehran 1389, 45; al-Suyuti, al-La'iili al-masnii'a, I, 107-110. Al-Zubayr b. Bakkar, op. cit., fol. 174b inf.-175a sup.; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 308; al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 298, No. 826; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 9, line 15 (and see 8, line 10); al-Fasi, op. cit., VII, 224, No. 2473; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., v, 450; Mu'arrij al-Sadtisi, Hadh] min nasab quraysh, ed. ~alal;l al-Din alMunajjid, Cairo 1960, 83, line 2. Nilr al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 53; al-Dhahabi, Siyar a'ldm alnubalii', ed. As'ad Talas, Cairo 1962, III, 138; Ibn Hajar, ol-Isiiba, II, 291, No. 4598. Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., III, 266; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 9, lines 13-14; al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 294, No. 820; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 307; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1803, No. 3277; Ibn Majah, op. cit., II, 405; al-Mundhiri, op. cit., IV, 140, No. 2896; Ibn 'Asakir, op. cit., VII, 366; Ibn al-Jauzi, al-Waiii, II, 465-6; al-Nawawi, op. cit., 128 inf. Ibn Durayd, op. cit., 54,73, 166. 89 90 91 92 93 [ 16] Further changes of names may be mentioned. Aswad (= black) was changed to Abyad (= white)," Akbar (= the greatest) to Bashir (= the messenger of good tidings)," Jaththama Dhii (= the sleepy) to Hassana," l-shimalayn to Dhii l-yadayn." Asram (= waterless desert) to Zur'a (= seed)," al-Sarm to Sa'id.?" 'Atala (= clod of earth; or iron rod for lifting stones) to 'Utba,100Qrr<;iab (= the thief) to Rashid,'?' (= Ghafil the heedless, the neglectful) to 'Aqil/02 Zalim to Rashid,':" Oalil to Kathir.'> Ghurab (= the crow) to Muslim,':" Dhu'ayb (= the little wolf) to 'Abdallah.t= Kalal) (= a barren year) to Dhu'ayb (= a forelock; he had namely a long forelock),':" Muhan (= despised) to 94 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 138, No. 143; Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 11, lines 1-2; Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 55. 95 Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr, op. cit., 177, No. 209; GoIdziher, Gesetzliche Bestimmungen, 257. 96 Ibn Nasir al-Din, op. cit., fo1. 266a; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1810, No. 3295; al-Jarrahi, Kashj al-khaidi wa-muzilu l-ilbiis (reprint, Beirut), I, 360, No. 1146. 97 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 478; Ibn Rustah, al-A'liiq al-naiisa, ed. de Goeje, Leiden 1892, 214; al-Mubarrad, al-Kiimil, ed. Abu I-Fa41 Ibrahim, Cairo 1376/1956, IV, 101. 98 Abu Dawud, op. cit., II, 308; Ntir al-Din al-Haytharni, op. cit., VIII, 54; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 308; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit:: 519, No. 816 (and see 141, No. 153). 99 Al-Safadi, Nakt al-himyiin, Cairo 1911, 159-160; al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 290, No. 822; Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr, op. cit., 627, No. 993 (and see 835, No. 1421); Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 52 inf.-53 sup.; Ibn Hajar, alIsiiba, II, 5l. No. 3291. 100 Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 53: L'A, s.v. 'ail; Ibn l;Iajar, lsiiba, II, 454, No. 5407. 101 Ibn al-Kalbf, al-Iamhara; fo1. 245b; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, I, 495, No. 2516. 102 Al-Mausili, Ghiiyat ol-wasdil ilii ma'rijati l-awii'il, Ms. Cambridge Qq 33(10), fol. 26a; al-Fasi, op. cit., V, 81, No. 1453; Ibn 1:Iajar, al-Isiiba, II, 247, No. 3461; Ibn Rustah, op. cit., 228. 103 Ibn 1:Iajar, ai-Isiiba, I, 494, No. 2514. 104 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 9, lines 14-15; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 296, No. 419; 3308, No. 2176. 105 AI-Fasi, op. cit., VII, 194, No. 2454; al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 297, No. 824; Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op, cit., VIII, 52 inf. 106 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 464, No. 707; Ibn Hajar, ai-Isiiba, I, 493, No. 2506. 107 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 465, No. 709; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, I, 490, No. 2490 (his name: al-Kilabi - an error). [ 17 ] Mukram.10B Kusayr was changed to Jubayr/09 Khilifa to RAshida,l!O al-Mudtaji' to al-Munba'ith.t= AbO Maghwiyya to AbU lUshid,1l2 Bann l-Ghawiyy to Banu l-Rashad.v" Banu Ghayyan to Banii Rasbdan,1l4 Banu l-Samma' to Banu l-Sami'a,':" Zahm to Bashir,ll8 and Muqsim to Muslim. 11 The Prophet changed the name of al-Sa'ib (= the 1 freely flowing) to 'Abdallah; his people, however, continued to call him al-Sa'ib and he became mad.r= To 'Abdallah were changed the names of the famous Jewish convert al-Husayn (= the small fortress) b. Salam 119 well as those of Dinar 120 as and Nu'm.i= The Prophet gave some names in connection with certain events and occasions. A Persian slave (of whose name some 21 versions are recorded), on whom the Companions of the Prophet loaded their garments when on a walk on a hot day, was granted the name Safina (= the ship).122 A girl, born when Surat Maryam was revealed, was 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 AI-Muttaqi l-Hindi, op. cit., xv, 264, No. 766; Ibn Hajar, al-I1aba, III, 456, No. 8194. Anonymous, al-Dhakhira wa-kashj al-tauqi', fol. 52a. Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 11, lines 4-6. Ibn l;Iajar. aJ-I1aba, III, 457-8, Nos. 8103-4. Ma'mar b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 43, No. 19862; al-Muttaqi l-Hindi, op. cit., xv, 290, No. 819. Ibn al-Kalbi, al-Iomhara, fol. 48b. Ibid, fol. 166b. Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi, al-Istibsiir, 326. Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr, op. cit., 173, No. 196; Nur aI-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 51; al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 302-3, Nos. 829-30; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., VI, 50; aI-Muttaqi l-Hindi, op. cit., XV, 272, No. 782; Ibn l;Iajar, aJ-l1iiba, 1, 159, No. 704. Ibn l;Iajar, al-l~iiba, III, 415, No. 7966; Nur aI-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 54. Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 6, lines 5-8; 10, lines 14-17; Ibn I;Iajar, al-l~iiba, II. 385, No. 5047. Anonymous, History 0/ prophets, Ms.Br.Mus., Or. 1510, fol. 18tb; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 921, No. 1561; Ibn l;Iajar, aJ-l~iiba, II, 320, No. 4725; al-Fasawi, op. cit., Iol, 134a inf.; Ibn 'Asiikir, op. cit., VII, 443. Ibn l;Iajar, al-Isiiba, II, 370, No. 4957. AI-l;Iakim, Marija: 'uliim aJ-lJadith, ed. Mu'azzam l;Iusayn, Cairo 1937, 101; Nur al-Din al-Hayrhami, op. cit., VIII, 53. Ibn 'Abd aI-Barr, op. cit., 685; Ibn l;Iajar, al-Isdba, II, 58, No. 3335. 117 118 119 120 121 122 [ 18] named by the Prophet Maryem."? The slave Fath was granted the name Simj, because he made light in the mosque of the Prophet.'> A baby born on the day of a battle fought by the Prophet was called by him Sinan (= spear head).':" Scholars of I)adith discuss vigorously a special group of names given to slaves and servants. The Prophet is said to have forbidden. or intended to forbid, the names of Rabah, Yasar, Najih, Aflah, Nafi', al·'Ala', Ya'Iii and the female names Baraka and Barra.!" The reason given for it is that if a person asks about a servant whose name denotes success, good luck or blessing and the servant is not there, he may have a feeling of disappointment and failure. Recommended names were Yazid, al-Harith and Hammam, These names might be called "neutral ones". In the explanation given for these names the traditions point out that everybody increases (yaztdu) in good or bad (deeds), that everybody tills tyahruthut for his affairs in this world and in the next one and that everybody cares tyahtammut for his affairs in this world and in the next one.!" Al-Harith and Hammam are called by the Prophet "asdaqu l-asmii','J,o"names most truthful." A recommended name was Hamza.?" The Prophet granted 123 124 Nur al-Din al-Haythami, op, cit., VIII, 55. Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 683, No. 1131; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, II, 18, No. 3103. 125 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 657, No. 1071. 126 NUf al-Din al-Haythami, op. cit., VIII, 50; Ibn Miijah, op. cit., I, 405; Abu Diiwiid, op, cit., II, 308; al-Jilani, op, cit., II, 305, No. 834; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 306 ('Umar also intended to forbid, but later refrained); aI•. Samarqandi, op, cit., 157; al-Munawi, op. cit., VI, 349, No. 9562; 402, No. 9799; Yusuf b. Musii al-Hanafi, op. cit., II, 206; al-Mundhiri, op. cit; IV, 140, No. 2893; al-Sha'rani, op. cit., 755. On Barra changed into Zaynab or Juwayriya see: Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1805, No. 3282; 1849, No. 3355; 1855, No. 3361; 1915-6; No. 4099 (changed into Maymtlna); Ibn Wabb, op. cit., 8, lines 6-7; al-Jilani, op, cit., II, 294, No. 821; 303, No. 831: al-Qastallani, op. cit., IX, 112; al-'Ayni, op. cit., X, 452; AbU Diiwiid, op. cit., 11,307; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 307; al-Mundhiri, op, cit., IV, 141, Nos. 2897-8; al-Nawawi, op. cit., 127 inf. 127 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 7, lines 7-9. 128 Al-Muniiwi, op. cit., IV, 111, No. 4712; Ibn Wahb, op, cit., 10, lines 9-'-11. [ 19 J a baby the name al-Mundhir (= the warner); 129a slave was given by him the name 'Al1im.130 * The close relation between Muhammad and the former prophets, the idea that Muhammad continued the mission of the preceding messengers found the expression in the domain of names in the utterances attributed to the Prophet: "Call yourselves by the names of the prophets" (tasammau bi-asmii'i l-anbiyai) and "the names most liked by God are the nam,es of prophets." 131Ibn al-Hajj stresses that names conforming to the prescriptions of Islam (al-asmii'u l-shar';yya) contain the name of Allah, or (are - K.) the names of prophets or Companions; he points out the blessing (baraka) which such names impart.':" "There is no family, said the Prophet, in which the name of a prophet is carried by one of its members to which God, the Exalted and Blessed, does not send an angel in the morning and in the evening to bless them." 133The Prophet himself gave his child, born from his femaleservant Mariya, the name Ibriihim.134 The same name was given by the Prophet to the child born to AbU Musil al-Ash'ari.>" The Prophet changed the IJ,ame of Yasar b. Surad to Sulayman b. Surad,186 and gave the son of 'Abdallah b. Salam the name Yusuf.':" Giving the son of Khallad b. Rafi' the name Yahya, the Prophet remarked: "I shall 129 Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 288, No. 816; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan, IX, 306; alQastallani, op. cit., IX, 111. 130 Ntlr al-Din al-Haythami, op, cit., VIII, 54. 131 Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 286, No. 814; Abu DiiwUd, op. cit., II, 307; Ibn Abi Hatim, op. cit., II, 312, No. 2451; al-Qastallzni, op. cit., IX, 114; al-Nawawi, op. cit., 127. 132 Ibn al-Haj], op. cit., I, 123. 133 Al-Suytiti, al-La'aJi l-masnii'a, I, 100; Ibn al-Hajj, op. cit., I, 123. 134 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 54-61. 135 Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 308, No. 840; al-Qastallani, op. cit., IX, 114 (see the arguments that Abu Musa was his kunya before his first-born was named Ibrahim); al-'Ayni, op. cit., IX, 711; x, 454. 136 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 650, No. 1056; al-Tabari, Dhayl al-mudhayyai, 26, line 12; 73, line 6. [lO] give him a name, by which none was called after Yahya b. Zakariya' ." 138 There were, however, differences in opinion as to whether it is permissible to use name of angels. In a combined tradition the Prophet recommended to give children the names of prophets, but forbade to give them names of angels (sammii bi-asmii'i l-anbiyii' wa-lii tusammii bi-asma'i l-malii'ikatl).139 This opinion was not commonly accepted. Malik disliked naming children by the names of angels.>" but Hammad b. abi Sulayman 141stated that there is nothing objectionable in naming a person Jibril or Mikii'il.142 It is most highly recommended indeed to name the child Muhammad. He who names his child Muhammad hoping for blessing by this, both he and the one who got the name will gain Paradise, says an utterance attributed to the Prophet.>" On the Day of Resurrection the believer bearing the name Ahmad or Muhammad will stand up in the Presence of God and God will rebuke him for his sins committed even though he was named by the name of His beloved Muhammad, The believer will confess his sins and God will order Jibril to introduce him to Paradise, as God is ashamed to chastise with the fire of Hell a believer bearing the name Muhammad.>" It is highly recommended to name 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 Al-Jilani, op. cit., II, 307, No. 838; Ibn 1;Iajar. al-Isiiba, III, 671. No. 9375; Ibn'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1590, No. 2827 (the Prophet gave him the kunya Abu Ya'qtib). Ibn 1;Iajar, al-Isdba, III, 671, No. 9380; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, op. cit., 1569, No. 2750. AI-Munawi,op. cit., IV, 113, No. 4717. AI-Qastalliini, op. cit., IX, 111 sup.; and see Ibn al-Hajj, op. cit., I, 122 (... malik : la yanbaghi an yusammd I-rajulu bi-yiisin wa-Ia jibril wats mahdi). See on him Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-tahdhib, II, 16, No. 15. Ma'mar.b. Rashid, op. cit., XI, 40, No. 19850. Al-Siili\ti, op. cit., I, 509; al-Jarrahi, op. cit., II, 284, No. 2644; Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyya, al-Maniir al-munii [i I-~abi~ wa-l-da'i], ed. 'Abd al-Fattah Ghudda, 1;Ialab 1390/1970, 61, No. 94; and see ibid, No. 93. Ibn al-1;Iajj, op. cit., I, 123. [21 ] one of the children in the family Muhammad and to treat the child named by this name with due respect.>" Goldziher quotes in his article, "Gesetzliche Bestimmungen ... " a phrase from Ibn Qutayba's aI-Ma'iirif, according to which 'Umar intended to change the names of all the Muslims to those of prophets. If this were true, it would mean that we have here a continuation and a deepening of the Muslim trend expounded in the saying of the Prophet when he named his child Ibrahim: "I named him with the name of my father (i.e. ancestor) Ibrahim." The passage referred to (as quoted by Goldziher) runs as follows: ariida (i.e. 'Umar) an yughayytra asmii'a l-muslimina bi-asma'i l-anbiyii'i.146 The reading of Wtistenfeld was, however, erroneous and Goldziher was misled by this reading. The correct reading is: ariida an yughayyira asmii'a l-musammayna bi-asma'i l-anbiyii'i "He wanted to alter the names of these who were called by the names of prophets." 'Umar tried indeed to carry out his plan. Ibrahim b. al-Harith b. Hisham entered the court of 'Umar "at the time when he wanted to alter the names of those who were called by the names of the prophets" and he changgd his name to 'Abd al-Rahman b. al-Harith.>" 'Umar changed the name of Miisa b. Sa'id to 'Abd al-Rahman b. Sa'id,148 When 'Umar heard how the son of his nephew, Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Rahman b. Zayd b. al-Khattab was slandered by a person, who repeatedly abused his name Muhammad, he vowed not to have the Prophet Muhammad being abused through the name of the son of his nephew anymore; he thereupon changed his name to 'Abd alRal,tman.149 The action of 'Umar seems to have been wider in scope than the 145 146 147 148 149 Al-Munliwi, op. cit., I, 385, Nos. 705-6; VI, 237, No. 9084; and see Ibn Abi l;Ilitim, op. cit., II, 299, No. 2410. Goldziher, Gesetzliche Bestimmungen, 256. Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., V, 6; Ibn Hajar, al-Isiiba, III, 66, No. 6199; see Stowasser-Freyer, op. cit., Der Islam, 42(1965), 29. Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., V, 51. See Ibn l;Iajar, al-Isiiba, III, 69, No. 6211; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., V, 50; al'Ayni, op. cit., VII, 143; Ibn Hajar, Fat/:! al-biiri, x, 435. r 22] mere changing of some names of persons called by the names of prophets. 'Umar is reported to have written to the people of aI-Kiifa and ordered them not to name their children by the names of prophets; he also ordered "a group of people" at Medina to change the names of their children called Muhammad, They argued that the Prophet permitted them to call their children by this name, and 'Umar let them. AI-'Ayni argues that the reason for 'Umar's action was the case of abusing Muhammad, the bearer of the name of the Prophet; he states that the consensus of the community has been established, that it is permitted to give children names of prophets.>" Who was "the group" who were called by the names of prophets, can be gauged from a very short report, recorded by Ibn Hajar about the attempt of 'Umar to change names of prophets and the name of Muhammad as well. He summoned the sons of Talha, ordering them to change their names. Muhammad b. Talha, the first born, answered that is was the Prophet who had named him Muhammad: 'Umar had to admit that he could not do anything against him. Ibn Hajar concludes that 'Umar withdrew from his plan."" The names of the sons of Talha bear clear evidence for the tendency to name children by names of prophets in the earliest period of Islam. Talha had nine children and he gave them the following names: Muhammad, 'Imran, 152 Miisa, Ya'qiib, Isma'Il, Ishaq, 'Isa, Zakariyya', YaQya. It is not surprising to read in a remarkable story how Talha in a talk with al-Zubayr prided himself with the names of his sons. "The names of my sons are names of prophets," he said; ••the names of your sons are names of martyrs." "I hope that my sons will become martyrs," said aI-Zubayr, "while you don't have hopes that your sons will become prophets." 153 This anecdote points 150 Al-'Ayni, op. cit., VII, 143; x, 449 inf.; cf. Ibn Hajar, Fat/.! al-biiri, X, 435, 440; al-Qastallani, op. cit., IX, 110 inf.-l11 sup. 151 Ibn I;Iajar, Fat/.! al-bdri, X, 435, lines 21-2. 152 See Mus'ab b. 'Abdallah, op. cit., 281 seq.; Ibn Hazm, Jamharat ansiib al-'arab, ed. Levi-Provencal, Cairo 1948, 129 (and see the list of the sons of Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Talha : Ya'qtib, ~ali/;l, Sulayman, YUnus, Diwfid, al-Yasa', Shu'ayb, RarUo - Mus'ab, op. cit., 285; Ibn Hazm, op. cit., 129). 153 Ibn 1;Iajar, Fat/.! al-biiri, x, 440. [23 ] clearly to the importance which was attached to the names in early Islam and to the diverging opinions about this subject. The alleged intervention of 'Umar is justified by 'Umar's care in respecting these names and preventing them from being tarnished. The real reason seems. however, to be quite different. We gain a deeper insight into the motives of 'Umar from a significant passage recorded by Ibn Wahb. A female servant (muwallada) came to'Umar asking for a garment for herself. When asked who her maulii was, she said: Abu 'Isa, the son of 'Umar. 'Umar ordered to bring his son. beat him and said: "Do you know what the names of Arabs are? They are: 'Amir. 'Uwaymir, MAlik, Surma, Muwaylik, Sidra and Murra." He repeated this three times and finally said: "Leave 'lsa! By God. we do not know of 'lsa having a father." 154 The parallel passage, recorded by Ibn Abi l-Hadid gives the name of 'Umar's son: 'Ubaydullah b. 'Umar. 'Umar counts, beating him, the kunyas of the Arabs: AbU Salama, Abu Hanzala, AbU 'Urfuta and AbU Murra.>" Needless to recall that the list of names recommended by 'Umar contains names disapproved of by the Prophet, like Murra, Surma, Hanzala and- Malik. It is evident that this story ascribed to 'Umar reflects a reaction against the naming of. children by the foreign names of prophets. The story affords an insight into the struggle between the effort of introducing Biblical elements already present in the Our'an, and later developed in the hadith, into the sphere of name-giving in Muslim society against the opposition of conservative groups among the Arabs, who persevered in their resistance to this new pietistic trend. It is not surprising that this idea is expressed as coming from the mouth of 'Umar, the representative of Arab conservatism, as is evid.ent from his famous saying: lkhshaushinii wa-tama'dadii=r • 154 Ibn Wahb, op. cit., 7. lines 15 - 8, line 5. 155 Ibn Abi l-Hadid, op. cit., XII, 44. 156 Al-Tabari, Dhayl al-mudhayyal, 78 (attributed to the Prophet); Ibn Durayd, op. cit., 31 (traced back to 'Urnar); al-Sakhawi, al-Maqiisid, 163, No. 348; Ibn 'Asiikir, op. cit., VII, 349; al-$iilil}.i,op. cit., I, 346. [ 241 The old ways of naming children and the Jahili names themselves persisted in Bedouin society. The statement of J. J. Hess that names containing the name of Allah and these of specific Islamic nature like Ahmad, TaM etc. were almost wholly missing in the material examined by him, is Instructive.':" Unpleasant names were, like in the Jahiliyya, reserved for children of free Bedouin, while pretty names were given to slaves.!" It is noteworthy that the explanation for this practice given by the shaykh of the 'Oneze("The names of our slaves are for us, our names are for our enemies") corresponds exactly to the answer given by al-'Utbi to Abii Hatim al-Sijistani.!" Accordingly one can find in the list of names supplied by Hess, slaves named Yaqiit, Mabriik, Mubashshir, Sa'Id, and names like Ghurab, Barghiith, Juway'iI. Juraydhi, Jukhaydib, Juhaysh, Jarbii', Shubaytha, Ourada, Hijris borne by free Bedouin. The names disliked in Islam, like Murra, Kalb. Malik and Harb, are recorded in the list of Hess as names of free Bedouin. Names given according to the place, time or conditions of birth of the children 160are reminiscent of similar cases in the Jahiliyya.l6l As in the Jahiliyya, children are called Julaymid, Fihran, Fahra and Hajar,162 and sometimes several children are called by their father by names derived from the same root.':" These vestiges of the Jahiliyya, which can be traced in Bedouin society, clearly underline the considerable changes and developments which took place in Muslim society. 157 I. I. Hess, Beduinennamen aus Zentralarabien, Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Heidelberg 1912 (III, 19),4. 158 Hess, op. cit., 7 ("6"). 159 Hess, op. cit., 7; Ibn Durayd, op. cit., 4 (and see n. 54 above). 160 Hess, op, cit., 6-7. 161 See e.g, Ibn al-Kalbi, Jamhara, fol. 95a; Ibn Durayd, op. cit., 6-7. 162 See e.g. Ibn Durayd, op. cit., 5, penult. 163 Hess, op. cit., 7 ("8"); cf. e.g. Ibn al-Kalbi, Jamhara, fol. 175b, line 1 (Khushayn, Khashin, Mukhashin, Khashshan); fol. 154a, (Mu'attib, 'Attab, 'Itban); fol. 107b (Hashim, Hisham, Hushaym, Muhashshim); Ibn Durayd, op. cit; 166 (al-'A4, AbU 1-'A4, al-'i~, Abu l-'i~, 'Uways - the sons of Umayya, called al-A'y~). [25 ]