Article languages: English
Find more Articles about:
DjariyaEI.pdf Djāriya b. Ḳudāma b. Zuhayr (or: b. Mālik b. Zuhayr) b. al-Ḥuṣayn b. Rizāḥ b. Asʿad b. Budjayr (or: Shudjayr) b. Rabīʿa, Abū Ayyūb (or: Abū Ḳudāma, or: Abū Yazīd) al-Tamīmī, al-Saʿdī, nicknamed “al-Muḥarriḳ”, “the Burner”—was a Companion of the Prophet (about the identity of Djāriya b. Ḳudāma with Djuwayriya b. Ḳudāma see Tahdhīb, ii, 54, 125, and Iṣāba, i, 227, 276). Djāriya gained his fame as a staunch supporter of ɈAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. According to a tradition quoted by Ibn SaɈd (Ṭabaḳāt, vii/1, 38) Djāriya witnessed the attempt at the assassination of ɈUmar; later, he was in Baṣra when the forces of Ṭalḥa and al-Zubayr entered the city. He harshly reproached ɈĀɇisha (al-Ṭabarī, ed. Cairo 1939, iii, 482; al-Imāma wa ʾl-Siyāsa, ed. Cairo 1331 A.H., i, 60), and took part in the battle of the Camel with ɈAlī (although his tribe, the SaɈd, remained neutral); he was given command of the SaɈd and the Ribāb of Baṣra in the battle of Ṣiffīn and distinguished himself in this battle (Naṣr b. Muzāḥim: Waḳʿat Ṣiffīn, 153, 295, ed. Beirut). He seems to have approved the idea of arbitration and was among the delegation of the heads of Tamīm who tried to mitigate al-AshɈath and the Azd (alMubarrad, al-Kāmil (ed. Wright) 539). Djāriya remained faithful to ɈAlī after the arbitration and supported him in his struggle against the Khawāridj: he was at the head of the troop levied with difficulty by ɈAbd Allāh b. ɈAbbās from Baṣra (37 A.H.) and dispatched to fight the Khawārid̲j̲ (al-Ṭabarī, iv, 58; Caetani, Annali, x, 85). He remained faithful when the influence of ɈAlī began to shrink and ɈAlī was deserted by his friends. After his conquest of Egypt MuɈāwiya, being aware of the peculiar situation in Baṣra in which the differences between the tribal groups were acute and the partisans of ɈAlī not numerous, decided to wrest the city from ɈAlī. The details about these events holding ɈIrāḳ are provided by al-Balādhurī's Ansāb al-As̲h̲rāf among other sources (fols. 206b-209a). MuɈāwiya sent to Baṣra (in 38 A.H.) his emissary, ɈAbd Allāh b. ɈĀmir (or b. ɈAmr) al-Ḥa ramī, in order to win the hearts of the Banū Tamīm in Baṣra. He gained in fact the protection of the Banū Tamīm. The deputy prefect of, Baṣra Ziyād b. Abīhi, was compelled to seek protection for himself with the Azd in Baṣra. ɈAlī sent his emissary, AɈyan b. ubayɈa al- MudjāshiɈī, in order to prevent the fall of the city into the hands of MuɈāwiya; he was, however, killed by a group of men said to have been Khāridjites (although the version of the participation of ɈAbd Allāh Ibn al-Ḥa ramī seems to be plausible). Ziyād asked ɈAlī to send to Baṣra Djāriya b. Ḳudāma who was highly respected in his tribe (Ibn Abi ɇlḤadīd, S̲h̲arḥ Nahdj al-Balāgha, i, 353). Djāriya arrived at Baṣra with a troop of 50 warriors (or 500—see al-Ṭabarī, iv, 85; or 1000 or 1500—see Ansāb, fol. 208b), met Ziyād b. Abīhi, rallied the followers of ɈAlī, succeeded in winning the hearts of groups of Tamīm who joined him, attacked the forces of Ibn al-Ḥa ramī and defeated them. Ibn al-Ḥa ramī retreated with a group of 70 followers to a fortified Sāsānid castle belonging to a Tamīmī called Sunbīl (or Ṣunbīl). Djāriya besieged the castle, ordered wood to be placed around it and set the wood on fire. Ibn al-Ḥa ramī and his followers were burnt alive. There are controversial traditions about the course of the encounter between Djāriya and Ibn al-Ḥa ramī (see Ansāb, fol. 208b). According to a rather curious tradition (refuted by al-Balādhurī), Djāriya came to Baṣra as an emissary of MuɈāwiya together with Ibn al-Ḥa ramī, but forsook him however in Baṣra (Ansāb, fol. 209a). After the victory of Djāriya, Ziyād returned to the residence of the Governor of Baṣra. The authority of ɈAlī was thus secured in Baṣra. Ziyād b. Abīhi praised in his letter to ɈAlī the action of Djāriya and described him as the “righteous servant” (al-ʿabd al-ṣāliḥ). It was Djāriya who advised ɈAlī in 39 A.H. to send Ziyād to the province of Fārs to quell the rebellion of the Persians who refused to pay their taxes (al-Ṭabarī, iv, 105). According to Ibn Kathīr (cf. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, iii, 165), the revolt was caused by the brutal action of burning committed by Djāriya (al-Bidāya, vii, 320). Djāriya fought his last fight in the service of ɈAlī against Busr b. Abī Arṭāt [q.v.] in 40 A.H. When the tidings about the expedition of Busr reached ɈAlī, he dispatched Djāriya with a troop of 2000 men to pursue Busr (another troop under the command of Wahb b. MasɈūd was also dispatched by ɈAlī). Djāriya, following Busr, reached the Yemen (so al-Balādhurī, Ansāb 211b; according to al-Ṭabarī, iv, 107, he reached Nadjrān) and severely punished the partisans of MuɈāwiya. Pursuing the retreating Busr, Djāriya arrived at Mecca and was told that ɈAlī had been killed. He compelled the people of Mecca to swear allegiance to the Caliph who would be elected by the followers of ɈAlī. In Medina he compelled the people to swear allegiance to Ḥasan b. ɈAlī. In the time of MuɈāwiya there was a reconciliation between Djāriya and MuɈāwiya. Anecdotal stories report about the talks between Djāriya and MuɈāwiya (al-Naḳāʾiḍ, ed. Bevan, 608; al-Balādhurī, Ansāb, fol. 358b; al-Djāhiẓ, al-Bayān, ii, 186; al-Mubarrad, alKāmil, ed Wright, 40). According to a fairly reliable tradition in al-Balādhurī's Ansāb (fol. 1048b), MuɈāwiya granted Djāriya a large fee of 900 djarīb. Djāriya died in Baṣra. His funeral was attended by al-Aḥnaf. (M.J. Kister) Bibliography Bukhārī, Taʾrīkh, i/2 (ed. Ḥayderābād 1362 A.H.) 236, 240 (N. 2309, 2325) al-Dhahabī, Taʾrīkh, ii, 182, 187 Ibn ɈAsākir, Taʾrīkh, ed. 1331 A.H., iii, 223 Wellhausen, The Arab kingdom, 100 Ibn al-Kalbī, Djamhara, Ms. Br. Mus., fol, 82a Ibn Durayd, Ishtiḳāḳ, (ed. ɈAbd al-Salām Hārūn), 253 al-Balādhurī, Ansāb al-Ashrāf, fols. 206b-209a, 211a, 366a, 358b, 1048b, 1130b Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb, al-Muḥabbar, index al-Mubarrad, al-Kāmil, index Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil (ed. Cairo 1301 A.H.), iii, 156, 165-7 Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya, vii, 316, 322, 320 Ibn SaɈd, Ṭabaḳāt, index al-YaɈḳūbī, Taʾrīkh, index al-ɈAsḳalānī, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, s.v. Djāriya and Djuwayriya al-ɈAsḳalānī, al-Iṣāba, s.v. Djāriya and Djuwayriya al-Marzubānī, Muʿdjam al-Shuʿarāʾ, (ed. Krenkow), 306 Muir, The Caliphate, Edinburgh 1924, 280 Ṭāhā Ḥusayn, ʿAlī wa-banūhu, 143-6, 150-1 al-Ṭabarī, index For a tradition of Djāriya and its parallels, see: DjāmiɈ Ibn Wahb (ed. David-Weill) 54, 106 Ibn Abi ɇl-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahdj al-Balāgha, ed. 1329 A.H. [Print Version: Volume II, page 480, column 2] Citation: Kister, M. J. “Djāriya b. Ḳudāma b. Zuhayr (or: b. Mālik b. Zuhayr) b. al-Ḥuṣayn b. Rizāḥ b. AsɈad b. Budjayr (or: Shudjayr) b. RabīɈa, Abū Ayyūb (or: Abū Ḳudāma, or: Abū Yazīd) al-Tamīmī, al-SaɈdī.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; and W. P. Heinrichs.